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Flashcards in Airworthiness VFR Requirements (Block 3) Deck (28)
1

91.403 General (Maintenance)

The owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible for maintaining that aircraft in an airworthy condition
No person may perform maintenance, preventative maintenance, or alterations on an aircraft

– Preventative maintenance
Part 43 appendix A

2

91.7 Civil Aircraft Airworthiness

Who may operate unworthy aircraft?

Who determines plane is airworthy?

What if plane is found Un airworthy?

No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition

The PIC is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in a condition for safe flight

The PIC will discontinue the flight when an unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur

3

Certificates and Documents

M: Minimum equipment list (if applicable)
A: Airworthiness certificate
R: Federal registration
R: State registration/FCC radio license
O: Operating limitations of the aircraft
W: Current weight and balance
G: G1000 Manual

With a minimum equipment list (MEL):
– MARROW

MEL must be physically present in the aircraft
Without a minimum equipment list:
– ARROW

4

91.203 Civil Aircraft: Certifications Required

An appropriate and current airworthiness certificate

– Must be displayed at the cabin or cockpit entrance so that it is legible to passengers or crew

An effective U.S. registration certificate

5

Airworthiness Certificate
When does it expire ?

“Effective as long as the maintenance, preventative maintenance, and alterations are performed in accordance with Parts 21, 43, and 91 of the FARs, as appropriate, and the aircraft is registered in the United States”

6

Airworthiness Certificate: What makes an airworthiness certificate valid?

– All required inspections are complied with

91.409 Inspections
– Preflight inspection done by the PIC
– Required equipment is operable

91.205 Instrument and Equipment Requirements

7

91.405 Maintenance Required

Each owner or operator of an aircraft:

– Shall have that aircraft inspected as prescribed

– Shall ensure that appropriate entries in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been “approved for return to service”

– Shall have any inoperative instrument or item of equipment repaired, replaced, removed, or inspected at the next required inspection

8

91.407 Operation After Maintenance, Preventative Maintenance, Rebuilding, or Alteration

No person may operate any aircraft that has undergone maintenance unless:

– It has been “approved for return to service” by an authorized mechanic

– Has had the appropriate maintenance record entry in the maintenance records

9

91.409 Inspections

No person may operate an aircraft unless, within the preceding 12 calendar months it has had an annual inspection

No person may operate an aircraft carrying any person (other than a crew member) for hire, unless within the preceding 100 hours of time in service the aircraft has received an annual or 100 hour inspection

The annual inspection counts as a 100 hour inspection

The 100 hour inspection does not count as an annual inspection

The 100 hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while enrouteto reach a place where the inspection can be done

The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service
– 0hrs + 110hrs -> Next due at 200hrs

A progressive inspection program, subject to approval by the FAA, can be utilized in lieu of the annual and 100-hour inspection
UND
– 4 phases
– 60 hours each
– All 4 phases constitute an annual inspection

10

91.413 ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections

No person may use an ATC transponder unless within the preceding 24 calendar months, the ATC transponder has been tested and inspected

11

91.207 Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT)

No person may operate a U.S. registered civil aircraft unless there is attached to the airplane an approved automatic type emergency locator transmitter that is in operable condition

– Does not apply to aircraft engaged in training operations conducted entirely within a 50 nm radius of the local airport (home base)

Each ELT must be inspected within 12 calendar months
Batteries used in the ELT must be replaced or recharged:
– After 1 hours of cumulative use
– When 50% of their useful life has expired
Date stamped on the battery

12

Summary of Aircraft Inspections (VFR)

Aircraft
–Annual (12 calendar months): all aircraft
–100 hour: for hire
–Progressive: FAA approved schedule
Transponder
–24 calendar months
ELT
–12 calendar months
ELT battery
–1 hour cumulative use
–50% of its useful life

AV1ATE:
Annual
VOR Inspection
100-HOUR (Annual counts as 100 HR)
Altimeter
Transponder
ELT Battery

13

The Four Needed Elements to MEL

1. Letter of Authorization
2. Preamble
3. Procedures Document - USE THIS DUMMY
4. Master MEL (MMEL) - DO NOT TOUCH

14

91.205 Instrument and Equipment Requirements

No person may operate a powered civil aircraft in any operation unless that aircraft contains the instruments and equipment specified for that type of operation, and those instruments and items of equipment are in operable condition

15

91.205 Instrument and Equipment Requirements
VFR Day: TOMATO FFLAMESS

VFR Day: TOMATO FFLAMESS
–Tachometer
–Oil pressure gauge
–Magnetic compass
–Airspeed indicator
–Temperature gauge (liquid cooled engine)
–Oil temperature gauge
–Fuel quantity gauge
–Flotation Gear (operated for hire and over water)
–Landing gear position indicator
–Altimeter
–Manifold pressure gauge (altitude engine)
–ELT (if required by 91.207)
–Seat belts
–Strobe lights (anti-collision lights)

16

91.205 Instrument and Equipment Requirements
VFR Night: FLAPS

VFR Night: FLAPS
–Fuses: spare set or three spare fuses of each kind
–Landing light: required only if for hire
–Anti-collision lights: strobe lights
–Position lights: navigation lights
–Source of electrical energy

17

91.213 Inoperative Instruments and Equipment
ON STAGE CHECK

No person may take off an aircraft with inoperative instruments and/or equipment installed unless:

– The aircraft is operated under all applicable conditions and limitations contained in the Minimum Equipment List

(MEL)
– The aircraft meets the requirements under 91.213(d)

Does your aircraft have an approved MEL with a letter of authorization or not?
– Yes I have an MEL: you must use that MEL specific to that aircraft
– No I do not have an MEL: you must use 91.213(d)
You CANNOT use another aircraft’s MEL

18

MEL Stickers (WHERE DO THEY GO?!?!)

Place the stickers/placards:
– (1) in the aircraft book and
– (2) adjacent to the inoperative piece of equipmen

19

What if the item is not in the MEL?

You are not allowed to use anything but the MEL to determine if a piece of equipment may be inoperative
If the item is not in the MEL, you can not go on the flight

20

91.213 Inoperative Instruments and Equipment No MEL

91.213(d) – No MEL
Must answer the following questions

– If YES is ever answered – the aircraft IS NOT airworthy and therefore you cannot take off in that aircraft

Is the inoperative instrument and/or item of equipment:
1.Part of the VFR-day type certification instrument and equipment requirements prescribed in the applicable airworthiness regulations under which the aircraft was type certificated. (FOUND ONLINE)
2.Indicated as required on the aircraft’s equipment list, or on the Kinds of Operations Equipment List
–Aircraft POH
3.Required by 91.205
4.Required by an airworthiness directive (AD)
–http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgAD.nsf/MainFrame?OpenFrameSet
5.Determined by the PIC that the inoperative instrument and/or item of equipment “does not constitute a hazard to the aircraft”

If No to all Then you may:
– Remove from the aircraft, the cockpit control placarded, and maintenance recorded or
– Deactivate and placard “inoperative”
– Determine if the aircraft is still SAFE to fly

21

Rule of thumb:
– If the aircraft would not pass an annual inspection in that condition then you should not fly it

Rule of thumb:
– If the aircraft would not pass an annual inspection in that condition then you should not fly it

22

Federal Registration: When do you need to reissue?

When is it no longer valid?

Must be renewed every 3 years
No longer valid when:
– Aircraft is registered under the laws of a foreign country
– Cancelled at the request of the owner
– Aircraft is totally destroyed
– Owner loses U.S. citizenship
– 30 days has elapsed since the owners death
– Ownership has changed

23

State Registration

Depends upon the state
Some require a certificate and/or sticker
Comparable to registering a boat or snowmobile

24

FCC Radio License - When is it required?

Required if flying internationally
– Both the aircraft and pilot are required to have FCC licenses in this case

25

91.9 Civil Aircraft Flight Manual, Marking, and Placard Requirements

No person may operate a civil aircraft without complying with the operating limitations specified in the approved
Airplane Flight Manual, markings, and placards.
No person may operate a U.S. registered civil aircraft unless there is available in the aircraft a current, approved Airplane Flight Manual

26

Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)

The actual POH for the aircraft must be physically present in the aircraft…not just your Pilot Information Manual (PIM)
Differences:
– N# and serial#
– Current revisions
– Equipment list
– Current weight and balance

27

What if the aircraft is SAFE, but not LEGAL to fly?

Special Flight Permit
– Contact FSDO
– Fly from your airport to maintenance

28

FSDO

Flight Standards District Office