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Flashcards in FAR ALL Deck (35)
1

91.3
Responsibility and Authority of the PIC

The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft.

In an in-flight emergency requiring immediate action, the pilot in command may deviate from any rule of this part to the extent required to meet that emergency.

Each pilot in command who deviates from a rule under paragraph (b) of this section shall, upon the request of the Administrator, send a written report of that deviation to the Administrator. (Within 48 Hours If Requested)

2

91.7
Civil Aircraft Airworthiness

Can anyone Pilot an aircraft in un-airworthy condition?

Who is responsible for determine an aircraft's air-worthiness?

What if they find the aircraft unworthy?

No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition.

The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight.

The pilot in command shall discontinue the flight when unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur.

3

91.9
Civil Aircraft Flight Manual, Marking, and Placard Requirements

No one may pilot an aircraft without complying with limitations provided in the POH.

No one may operate unless
- all necessary identification placards
- operating manual/handbook
- unless in accordance to Part 45

4

9.17
Alcohol or Drugs

No person may operate an aircraft if:

(1) Within 8 hours after the consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (UND is 12 hours )

(2) While under the influence of alcohol;

(3) While using any drug that affects the person's faculties in any way contrary to safety; or

(4) While having an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater

(b) Except in an emergency, no pilot of a civil aircraft may allow a person who appears to be intoxicated or who demonstrates by manner or physical indications that the individual is under the influence of drugs (except a medical patient under proper care) to be carried in that aircraft.

5

91.103
Preflight Action

Each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. This information must include—

-Takeoff/Landing Distance
-Runway Conditions
-Airport Information of all intended aircports
-Aircraft performance under expected values of airport elevation and runway slope, aircraft gross weight, and wind and temperature

6

91.105
Flight Crewmembers at Stations

During takeoff and landing, and while en route, each required flight crew member shall—(2)

UNLESS: (2)

During takeoff and landing, and while en route, each required flight crew member shall—

- Be at crew member station unless absence is necessary for crew member duties

-Keep the safety belt fastened while at the crewmember station

UNLESS:
-Seat is not equipped with a safety harness or safety belt.
-Crew member is unable to perform duties while harnessed

7

91.107
Use of Safety Belts…

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8

91.111 (3)
Operating Near Other Aircraft

-No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard.

-No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight except by arrangement with the pilot in command of each aircraft in the formation.

-No person may operate an aircraft, carrying passengers for hire, in formation flight.

9

91.113
Right of Way Rules

General

In Distress:
Overtaking:
Landing:
Head On:
Hierarchy.

When weather conditions permit, regardless of whether an operation is conducted under instrument flight rules or visual flight rules, vigilance shall be maintained by each person operating an aircraft so as to see and avoid other aircraft. When a rule of this section gives another aircraft the right-of-way, the pilot shall give way to that aircraft and may not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well clear

In distress - An aircraft in distress has the right-of-way over all other air traffic.

Overtaking - Each aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way and each pilot of an overtaking aircraft shall alter course to the right to pass well clear.

Landing. Aircraft, while on final approach to land or while landing, have the right-of-way over other aircraft in flight or operating on the surface, except that they shall not take advantage of this rule to force an aircraft off the runway surface which has already landed and is attempting to make way for an aircraft on final approach.

Head On : Both Deviate Right

Aircraft Hierarchy:
Balloon
Glider
Airship

10

91.119
Minimum Safe Altitudes




Anywhere:
Over Congested Areas:
Over other than congested areas:

-Anywhere. An altitude allowing, if a power unit fails, an emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface.

- Over congested areas.
1,000 feet above highest object
2,000 feet horizontally

-Over other than congested areas
An altitude of 500 feet above the surface

- except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In those cases, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.

11

91.121
Altimeter Settings

Each person operating an aircraft shall maintain the cruising altitude or flight level of that aircraft, as the case may be, by reference to an altimeter that is set, when operating—

Below 18,000 feet:
what if you don't have a radio?

Above 18,000 feet:

Below 18,000 feet:
-Current reported altitude of airport within 100 NM
-If no reporting within 100NM setting from an appropriate source

If you have no radio, the elevation or altimeter setting used before takeoff.

Above 18,000 feet: 29.92

12

91.125
ATC Light Signals

Steady Green
Flashing Green
Steady Red
Flashing read
Flashing White
Alternating Red and Green

Color and Type/Meaning on Ground/Meaning in Flight

-Steady green/Cleared for takeoff /Cleared to land

-Flashing green/Cleared to taxi/Return for landing (to be followed by steady green at proper time).

Steady red/Stop/Give way to other aircraft and continue circling.

Flashing red/Taxi clear of runway in use/Airport unsafe—do not land.

Flashing white/Return to starting point on airport/Not applicable

Alternating red and green/Exercise extreme caution/Exercise extreme caution.

13

91.126
Class G Airspace

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14

91.127
Class E Airspace

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15

91.129
Class D Airspace

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16

91.130
Class C Airspace

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17

91.131
Class B Airspace

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18

91.135
Class A Airspace

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19

91.137
Temporary Flight Restrictions

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20

91.151
Fuel Requirements for Flight in VFR Conditions

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21

91.153
VFR Flight Plan

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22

91.155
Basic VFR Weather Minimums

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23

91.157
Special VFR Weather Minimums

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24

91.159
VFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level

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25

91.203
Certifications Required

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26

91.205
Instrument and Equipment Requirements (Day and Night VFR)

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27

91.207
Emergency Locator Transmitters

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28

91.209
Aircraft Lights

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29

91.213
Inoperative Equipment

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30

91.215
ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment and Use

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31

91.403
General [Maintenance] (3)

-The owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible for maintaining that aircraft in an airworthy condition, including compliance with part 39 of this chapter.

-No person may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations on an aircraft other than as prescribed in this subpart and other applicable regulations, including part 43 of this chapter.

-No person may operate an aircraft for which a manufacturer's maintenance manual or instructions for continued airworthiness

-A person must not alter an aircraft based on a supplemental type certificate unless the owner or operator of the aircraft is the holder of the supplemental type certificate, or has written permission from the holder.

32

91.405
Maintenance Required

Each owner or operator of an aircraft— (4)

-Will have aircraft inspected as prescribed

-Make sure aircraft maintenance personnel make all appropriate entries for approved reinstatement to service

-Shall have any inoperative equipment noted in 91.213 repaired, replaced, removed, or inspected at the next required inspection

33

91.407
Operation after Maintenance, Preventive Mx, Rebuilding, or Alteration

No person may operate any aircraft that has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration unless—(3)

- It has been approved for return to service by authorized person

-Proper maintenance record has been logged

-No passengers until properly rated, and at least private pilot has inspected for airworthiness and changes in performance or function.

34

91.409
Inspections (Including Annual, 100 Hour, and Progressive)

AV1ATE

AV1ATE

Annual
VOR
100-hour
Altimeter
Transponder
ELT

35

91.417
Maintenance Records

Records of the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration and records of the 100-hour, annual, progressive, and other required or approved inspections, as appropriate, for each aircraft (including the airframe) and each engine, propeller, rotor, and appliance of an aircraft. The records must include—(7)

A description of the work performed; and

-The date of completion of the work performed

-The signature, and certificate number of the person approving the aircraft for return to service.

- Records containing the total time in service of the airframe, each engine, each propeller, and each rotor.

-The current status of life-limited parts of each airframe, engine, propeller, rotor, and appliance.

-Time since last overhaul

-The current status of applicable airworthiness directives (AD)