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Flashcards in Aviation Weather Services [Block 5] Deck (22)
1

Types of Weather Reports

•METAR
•Pilot Report
•Radar Report

2

Pilot Reports (PIREPS)

What are they?
What are they the only means of observing?

•PIREP’s are inflight weather observations made by pilots

•PIREP’s are the only means or observing icing and turbulence

3

Pilot Report (PIREP) Elements

UA / UUA - OV - TM - FL - TP - SK -WX - TA -
WV - TB -IC

•Elements
UA / UUA - Pilot Report / Urgent Pilot Report
OV -Location
TM - Time (Zulu)
FL - Altitude / Flight Level
TP - Type of Aircraft
SK - Sky Cover
WX - Weather and Flight Visibility
TA - Temperature
WV - Wind
TB - Turbulence
IC - Icing
RM - Remarks

4

Types of Forecasts (4)


What are the three types of advisories?

•TAF
•Area Forecast
•Winds Aloft
•Advisories
–AIRMET
–SIGMET
–Convective SIGMET

5

Aviation Area Forecast (FA) *TEST QUESTION*

When are they issued?
What do they cover?
What are they used for?
What are they combined with?

•Issued 3 times daily
•Cover large geographic areas
•Used for airports which do not have TAF’s issued
*GETS ASKED ON STAGE CHECK
•Combined with Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories

6

Aviation Area Forecast (FA) *TEST QUESTION*

What are the 4 sections?
What are the 4th sections forecast periods?

•Sections
1. Communications and Product Header
2. Precautionary Statements
3. Synopsis – summary of the location and movement of fronts
4. VFR Clouds and Weather
- 18 Hour Forecast Period
- 12 Hour Specific Forecast
- 6 Hour Categorical Outlook

7

Categorical Outlooks

VFR
MVFR
IFR
LIFR

•VFR:
–+5 SM and/or +3,000 feet
•MVFR:
–3-5 SM and/or 1,000 - 3,000 feet
•IFR:
–1-3 SM and/or 500 - 1,000 feet
•LIFR:
–less than 1 SM and/or 0 - 500 feet.

8

Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories *TEST QUESTION*

What are they?
When are they issued?
When are updates and corrections issued?

•AIRMET’s (WA)
–Issued on a scheduled basis every 6 hours
–Updates and corrections issued as necessary

9

AIRMET Types: *TEST QUESTION*

•Sierra
–Widespread IFR
–Ceilings 30 Knots
–Mountain Obscuration

•Zulu
–Moderate Icing
–Freezing Level Information

•Tango
–Moderate Turbulence
–Low Level Wind Shear
–Winds > 30 KNOTS

10

•SIGMET’s (WS) *TEST QUESTON*

What are they issued for?

–Issued for…

•Severe Icing not associated with Thunderstorms

•Severe or Extreme Turbulence

•Dust storms or Sandstorms lowering surface or inflight visibilities to below 3 miles

•Volcanic Ash
–Maximum Forecast Period: 4 Hours
–Unscheduled – Issued as Necessary

11

•Convective SIGMET’s (WST) *TEST QUESTION*

What are they issued for?

What is the forecast period?
When is it scheduled?

–Issued for…

•Severe Thunderstorms due to:
–Surface winds greater than or equal to 50 knots

–Hail at the surface greater than or equal to ¼ in.

–Tornados

•Embedded Thunderstorms

•A line of Thunderstorms

–Forecast Period: 2 Hours
–Scheduled – Issued at H+55

12

Winds Aloft Forecast (FB)

When is it issued?
What is it based on?
When are those launched?
Where are winds not forecast?
Where are temperatures not forecast?

•Issued 4 times daily
•Based on the 00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z Radiosonde Launches
•No winds forecast within 1500 ft of the surface
•No temperatures forecast within 2500 ft of the surface

13

Winds Aloft Forecast (FB) Coding

•Coding of Wind Direction and Speed
9900 Calm
2426+03 - Wind 240º at 26 knots, Temp 3º C
7613-13 - Wind 260º at 113 knots, Temp -13ºC

•When the number is in excess of 50, the wind is in excess of 100 knots.

•Subtract 50 from the first pair of numbers and add 100 to the second pair.

14

Surface Analysis Chart

When are they valid?
When are they transmitted?

What features do they have?

•Valid only at time of issuance

•Transmitted every 3 hours

•Features
–Isobars
–Pressure Systems
–Fronts
–Troughs and Ridges

15

Weather Depiction Chart

When is it valid?
When are they transmitted?
When does transmission begin?

When is analysis IFR, MVFR, or VFR?

•Valid only at time of issuance

•Transmitted at 3 hour intervals beginning at 01Z
•Elements
–Station Data
–Cloud Height
–Weather and Obscurations to Visibility
–Visibility – included when 5 miles or less

–Analysis
•IFR – Ceiling 5 miles

16

Weather Depiction Chart: Weather Stations

•Weather Stations
–Marked with a circle
•Open = skies clear
•Solid = overcast clouds
•¼ solid = scattered clouds
•¾ solid = broken clouds
•X = skies obscured

–Two digit number underneath the circle is the cloud ceiling height in hundreds or feet

17

Radar Summary Chart:

When is it valid?
When is it transmitted?
What does it feature? (5)

•Valid only at time of issuance

•Transmitted hourly at H+35

•Features
–Echoes
–Intensity
–Echo Tops
–Echo Movement
–Severe Weather Watch Areas

18

Radar Summary Chart:

What does it display?
What are the 6 levels of precipitation?
What are the 2 levels per outline?
What is it not displayed on?

•Displays
–Type of precipitation
–Location, tops, and bases
–Intensity

•6 levels: light, moderate, heavy,
very heavy, intense, extreme

•2 levels per outline
–Movement
–Lines and cells of thunderstorms

•Not displayed on any other weather chart

19

Significant Weather Prognostics Chart

What is it?
What are the 4 panels and what do they display?

•Chart used to determine areas of forecasted weather to avoid and supplement flight planning

•4 panels displayed together
–Top row: significant weather forecast below 24,000 MSL
–Bottom row: forecast surface conditions
–Left column: 12 hour forecast
–Right column: 24 hour forecast

20

Significant Weather Prognostics Chart: TOP PANELS

What does it show areas of?
What flight hazards does it show?

•Significant Weather Panels (top panels)
–Areas of
•IFR: less than 1,000 feet and/or 3 SM
•MVFR: 1,000 to 3,000 and/or 3 to 5 SM
•VFR: greater than 3,000 feet and 5 SM

–Moderate or greater turbulence
–Freezing levels

21

Significant Weather Prognostics Chart: BOTTOM PANELS

What does it show?
What are the unshaded areas?
What are the shaded Areas?

•Surface Conditions (bottom panels)
–Pressure systems
–Fronts
–Areas of significant weather

•Unshaded: precipitation covering
half or less of the area

•Shaded: precipitation covering
more than half of the area

•Precipitation type

22

SEVERITY TEST!

AIRMET
SIGMET

AIRMET - Moderate
SIGMET - Severe