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Flashcards in ANAEMIA Deck (10)
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1

Name 6 Normocytic Haemolytic anaemias

Sickle Cell disease

Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia (Warm IgG, Cold IgM)

Microangiopathic Haemolytic Anaemia
- TTP, DIC, HUS

G6PD Deficiency

Falciparum Malaria

Hereditary Spherocytosis

2

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)

- type of anaemia
- pathophysiology
- presentations

TTP = Normocytic Haemolytic

ADAMTS13

- Fever
- NEURO SnS
- Splenomegaly
- Haemolytic anemia
- Thrombocytopenia - easy bruising, purpura, petechia
- acute renal failure

3

Pt presents with 1wk of fever, numbness and difficulty speaking.

Splenomegaly is noted, and purpura on extremities.

Bloods show normocytic anaemia, decreased plts, high creatinine

Diagnosis?

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)

Pathophys: ADAMTS13 deficiency

- fever
- Neuro SnS
- Splenomegaly
- thrombocytopenia
- renal failure (creatinine)

4

Immune Thrombocytopenia

- pathophysiology
- presentations

Pathophysiology - immune destruction of platelets

- purpura
- gingival bleeding

(NO fever/ neuro/ splenomegaly)

5

Haemolytic-Uraemic syndrome (HUS)

- Pathophysiology
- Presentations

Pathophysiology: Children, following STEC (shigella-toxin E coli)

1. thrombocytopenia
2. haemolytic anaemia
3. acute renal failure

(NO Neuro)

6

Microangiopathic Haemolytic anaemia blood film

Schistocytes - Intravascular haemolysis

7

Autoimmune Haemolytic anaemia

Types? Investigations? Management?

Warm - IgG (SLE!!)
Cold - IgM

Investigations: DIRECT COOMBS TEST

PBS - Spherocytes

Mx: Corticosteroids

8

Sickle Cell disease

presentations
Investigations
Management

1. bone pain
2. dactylitis
3. thrombotic event
4. (Malaria - endemic)

Ix:
1. PBS - Sickle RBC, Howell-Jolly, Nucleated RBC
2. Hb electrophoresis - HbS

Mx: Hydroxycarbamide + frequent transfusions

9

Howell-Jolly bodies suggest...

Sickle cell disease

10

Hereditary Spherocytosis

Presentations? RF? Pathophysiology? Investigations? Management?

1. Neonatal/childhood
2. Jaundice
3. Anaemia
4. splenomegaly

RF: NORTHERN-EUROPE

Pathophys: RBC Spectrin defect > spherical RBC

Ix:
1. PBS: spherocytes, ^LDH, low haptoglobin

2. EMA BINDING TEST
- reduced EMA fluorescence

Mx:
- Folic acid
- transfusions
- Splenectomy before 5 is curative!!