Haematology Flashcards Preview

2A - Stuff i just cannot remember > Haematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Haematology Deck (72)
Loading flashcards...
1

DVT risk factors

Virchow's Triad.

Immobility, dehydration, oestrogen (pill, preg), clotting disorders, varicose v, trauma, infection, malignancy

2

Virchow's Triad

Stasis of blood flow

Hypercoagulability

Vessel wall injury

3

Myeloma bloods

Monoclonal Antibodies + Bence-Jones proteins

IgG >30 g/L
Plasma cells >10%

4

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia bloods

Low Hb, High platelets, High WBCs

:: ^myeloblast cell turnover > differentiate into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils.

Leucocytosis :: ^^WBC proliferation

5

Iron deficiency anaemia presentations

= microcytic anaemia

- brittle hair/nails
- Koilonychia
- Pale conjunctivae
- Systolic flow murmur

- pica cravings (esp kids)

6

Presentations of anaemia 2o to hypothyroidism

= macrocytic anaemia

- reduced reflexes (also in B12 deficiency)

7

Acute management of Acute Coronary Syndrome

Aspirin + Ticagrelor
GTN
Morphine
LMW Heparin/Fondaparinux

PCI within 12hr

8

Acute management of DVT + pharmacology

Rivaroxaban - inhibits factor Xa, Fondaparinux - inhibits factor X

LMW Heparin if PREG - inhibits anti-thrombin III

IVC Filter (if bleeding).

9

DVT presentations

Asymmetric calf swelling, localised pain, red skin, vein dilation

10

What is thrombocytopenia?

Outline the pathophysiology of Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

low platelets

ITP - IgG targeted by Macrophage's Fc_Receptor

TTP - Low ADAMTS-13 > Platelet consumption

11

Pt presents with painless lymphadenopathy. There is some pain after drinking alcohol.

Likely diagnosis? Risk factors? Management?

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

RF: Young, high socioeconomic class

Mx: ABVD Chemo

12

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Types, Risk Factors, Management

EBV - Burkitt's/ AIDS-related

H. pylori - MALT

Mx: HAART + R-CHOP-21 + Rituximab

13

Pt presents with pruritus, vision loss, headache and fatigue. They recently suffered a thrombotic event.
They complain of episodes burning pain in their feet and hands (erythomelalgia)

Likely diagnosis?

Absolute Polycythaemia

14

Pt presents with pruritus, vision loss, headache and fatigue. They recently suffered a thrombotic event.
They complain of episodes burning pain in their feet and hands (erythomelalgia)

Their face is ruddy and genetic tests show a JAK2 mutation.

Likely diagnosis?

Absolute Secondary Polycythaemia - Polycythaemia Rubra Vera

15

Gold standard investigation for Malaria

Giemsa-stained blood film - Plasmodium falciparum

16

Management of Malaria

Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT)

Quinines, Artesunate, Primaquine

17

Splenomegaly in the context of haematology can indicate

1)
2)
3)

1) Lymphoma
2) Leukaemia
3) Myeloproliferative disorders

18

Erythromelalgia indicates...

Polycythaemia Rubra Vera + essential thrombocytosis

= "dusky" extremities + burning pain with hot temperatures.

19

An IgG paraprotein spike in the context of haematology indicates...

Multiple myeloma

20

Macroglossia in the context of haematology indicates...

Amyloidosis

21

JAK2 mutations are associated with...

Polycythaemia Rubra Vera

22

Middle-age patient presents with massive splenomegaly and his toe is very painful and hot to touch.

A blood film is requested.

Likely diagnosis? What may genetic testing find? What may his blood film reveal?

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

Blood film - ^^mature myeloid cells , basophils, eosinophils

Genetics: Philadelphia chromosome

23

Pt presents with anaemia, bleeding and recurrent infections. Examination reveals hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and gum hypertrophy.

Likely diagnosis? Biopsy findings?

SnS = BM Failure + BM infiltration

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Biopsy: Auer Rods + Blast cells

24

5 yr old presents with fatigue and easy bruising. They have had recurrent infections this year. The child complains of a sore back.

Examination reveals painless lymphadenopathy and meningism.

Likely diagnosis? Biopsy?

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Biopsy: Leukaemic Lymphoblastic Cells!

25

Child under 6 with features of BM infiltration + Lymphadenopathy?

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

26

Features of Bone Marrow Failure

Anaemia - fatigue
Abnormal bleeding
Abnormal bruising (low platelets)

27

Pt presents with wt loss, tiredness, fever and sweating.

Exam reveals massive splenomegaly, bleeding and gout.

Diagnosis?

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

28

Rouleaux formations are associated with...due to...

associated with Multiple Myeloma

Due to Raised ESR

29

Imatinib uses

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

Imatinib = Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor

(TK induced by philadelphia c/s mut)

30

Rituximab uses

= monoclonal Ab

- NHL (Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma)

- CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia)