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2A - Stuff i just cannot remember > Cardio > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardio Deck (71)
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1

MI ECG Changes

ST depression
ST Elevation

T-wave inversion
Abnormal Q wave

2

QT prolongation indicates...

Medication SE.

Amiodarone, antibiotics

3

Wide QRS indicates...

Bundle Branch Block

4

Dual Antiplatelet Therapy

Aspirin + PY12 inhibitor

(ticagrelor, clopidogrel, prasugrel)

5

ACS Management

1) GTN
2) O2
3) Analgesia
4) Dual Antiplatelet Therapy
5) PCI/ thrombolysis

6

Anti-hypertensives
1L - caucasian?
1L - Afro-Carib?

2L

3L

1L: Caucasian: ACEi
(ramipril)

1L: Afro-Carib: CCB
(Amlodipine)

2L: ARB
(Losartan)

3L: Thiazide-diuretic

7

Cor Pulmonale is ___ heart failure and presents with __

Right sided heart failure

Shortness of breath

8

What is a common cause of stroke?

Atrial Fibrillation

9

What would infective endocarditis present with?

Fever
New murmur
Janeway lesion
Osler's nodes
Splinter haemorrhages

10

How does Left Bundle Branch Block present?

Usually asymptomatic

ECG: WiLLiaM (V1, V6)

11

How does Right Bundle Branch Block present?

ECG: MaRRoW (V1, V6)

12

Heart failure classic triad

SOB, fatigue, ankle oedema.

13

Management of Acute Heart Failure

IV Furosemide + Diamorphine + Antihypertensive (GT, diuretic) or Antihypotensive (vasocative DA)

14

Management of Chronic Heart Failure

ACEi - Ramipril/ ARB - Valsartan + BB + Diuretic - Furosemide

2L Hydralazine/ nitrate/ Digoxin (with AF)

15

A high BNP level indicates...

Congestive heart failure

16

How is hypertension classified?

1) >135/85 ABPM
2) >150/95 ABPM
3) >180 S or >110 D

Malignant = >180/120 + end-organ damage

17

How is hypertension managed

ACEi/ ARB or CCB - Nifedipine (if >55/ Afro-Carib)

ACEi +/- CCB +/- Thiazide-like diuretic - Indapamide/ Spironolactone if K<4.5

18

How is pregnancy-induced HTN managed?

IV Magnesium Sulphate + Labetalol/ Hydralazine/ Methyldopa

19

What is Sodium Nitroprusside used for?

Lowering vv high BP

- encephalopathy
- Aortic dissection
- Pulmonary oedema

20

What is Labetalol used for?

= a BB - 1L for lowering BP in pregnancy

21

Cannon A-waves, HR <40bom, syncope indicates...

AV Block

22

What is seen on the ECG of a first-degree AV Block?

Prolonged PR interval >0.2s

23

ECG shows a PR interval progressively lengthening until P-wave is not conducted.

What SnS will this pt present with?

= Mobitz I (Wenckebach) 2nd degree AV block

Light head, dizzy, syncope

24

ECG shows a constant PR interval, with a dropped QRS.

What SnS will this pt present with?

= Mobitz II 2nd Degree AB block

SOB, postural hypotension, angina.

Requires permanent pacemaker.

25

Why is Mobitz II irreversible?

Failure of conduction through His-purkinje system, which is resistant to AV blocking agents

26

ECG shows P-waves completely independent of QRS.

How is this pt treated?

= 3rd Degree heart block

IV atropine
Permanent pacemaker

Narrow QRS IN BoH. (QRS < 0.12)

Broad QRS BELOW BoH. (QRS >0.12s)

27

ECG shows saw-tooth F waves in II, III, aVF. They show heart and lung pathologies.

How is this pt treated?

= Atrial Flutter

LMW Heparin THEN electrical cardioversion

Catheter ablation, IV amiodarone, BB

28

ECG shows irregular irregular rhythm at 400bpm and no p-waves.

How is this pt treated?

= Atrial Fibrillation

Cardioversion: DC Shock + LMW heparin + antiarrhythmic

VR control - block AVN!
- CCB, BB, digoxin, amiodarone

CHA2DS2-VASc Score

29

Symptoms and signs of LEFT heart failure

Prolonged capillary refill time, S3 gallop, pulsus alternans

30

Pansystolic murmur heard loudest at the apex on expiration

Mitral regurgitation