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Flashcards in ICS Pathology Deck (23)
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1

Define pharmacodynamics

Action of drug on body

2

Define pharmacokinetics

Action of body on drug

3

Anticholinergics decrease the effect of the ___ nervous system.

SE =

Parasympathetic

eg Amitriptyline

SE:
- blurred vision
- confusion
- dry mouth
- urinary retention

4

What drugs inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis?

Penicillin + Cephalosporins + Carbapenems + Glycopeptides

5

What drugs inhibit DNA replication/ transcription?

Quinolones - Ciprofloxacin

6

Which drug inhibits COX?

Paracetamol

7

Pharmacology of Warfarin

Vitamin K antagonist > prevents synthesis of vitK-dependant clotting factors (2, 7, 9, 10)

Green leafy veg = source of VITK

Grapefruit, cranberries, alcohol INCREASE warfarin effect.

8

Co-amoxiclav is a combination of...

Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid (B-lactamase inhibitor)

9

What is a phaeochromocytoma?

Tumour of the adrenal medulla's chromaffin cells

Releases catecholamines (adrenaline)

10

What is the risk of removing a phaeochromocytoma?

Removal > large release of catecholamines > refractory hypertension

11

What measurements do we take prior to removing a phaeochromocytoma?

Alpha then Beta Block

Phenooxybenzamine then Bisoprolol

(If beta blocked first > Blocked B2-vasodilation > uncontrolled A1-vasoconstriction > refractory HTN)

12

What is Carbimazole used for?

Thyrotoxicosis

13

Where does C. diff colonise?

Large intestine

14

Pseudomembranous colitis caused by...

C. diff

15

Ischaemic colitis caused by...

Associated with AF.

No microbiology!

16

Mycobacterium Avium Complex causes ___ which is an __-defining illness

Mycobacterium avium-intracellular infection = AIDS-defininf illness

17

Atypical pneumonia causes associated with animals?

Chlamydia psittaci - birds

Coxiella burnetti

18

How do we treat pulmonary TB?

SE of tx?

RIPE

Rifampicin: red/orange urine/tears

Isoniazide: Peripheral neuropathy

Pyrazinamide: gout

Ethambutol: colour blindness, reduced visual acuity

19

Cells involved in Inflammation

Neutrophil polymorph - phagocytic

Macrophage - Ag-presenting

Lymphocytes - Specific Ags

Endothelial cells - sticky, porous, angiogenesis

Fibroblasts - collagen repair

20

Inflammation cardinal signs

Rubor
Calor
Tumor
Dolor

21

Atherosclerosis pathophysiology outline.

Inflammatory cytokines involved?

Atherosclerotic plaque composition.

Ox-LDL + Macrophage = Foam cell > trapped in tunica intima > die > release fat > fatty core

IL 1, 6, 8

Atherosclerotic plaque = Fibrous tissue + lipid + lymphocytes + Necrotic Core.

22

Define Neoplasm

Lesion from autonomous growth of cells which persists after the stimulus is removed.

23

Define Tumour

Abnormal swelling - due to neoplasm/ inflammation/ hypertrophy/ hyperplasia