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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (21)
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1

Define Antimicrobial agent

Substance with inhibitory properties against microorganisms

Minimal effects on mammalian cells

Includes Antibiotics and synthetic compounds

2

Define Antibiotic

Substance produced by microorganisms that:

inhibit the growth (bacteriostatic)
or
kill (bactericidal) other bacteria

3

Define susceptibility

The level of vulnerability of a microorganism to an antimicrobial.

4

Pharmacology of Beta-Lactams

Include penicillin's, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems

Inhibits transpeptidases > weaken cell wall > lysis of organism

5

Penicillin uses and examples

Narrow: Benzylpenicillin > Streptococci

Moderate: Amoxicillin > Gram-positive + Gram negative

Piperacillin > Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Flucloxacillin RESISTANT to staphylococcal b-lactamase,

6

Cephalosporin examples

Cefuroxime
Ceftazidime
Cefotaxime

7

Carbapenems uses and examples

= Broad spectrum. Treat severe infections: live sepsis, peritonitis

Imipenem
Meropenem
Ertapenem

8

Uses, examples and SE of Glycopeptides

Bactericidal against Gram-POSITIVE bacteria (Staphylococci)

Vancomycin - MRSA ( resistant staph aureus)
Teicoplanin

SE Vancomycin - nephrotoxic, ototoxic, erythematous rash

Useful in pt with B-lactam allergy/ resistant pathogen.

9

Give examples, uses and SE of Aminoglycosides

AMINOGLYCOSIDES

Mechanism: Inhibit 30s ribosome synthesis

Gentamicin
Streptomycin

SE: Nephrotoxic, ototoxic, hypersensitivity

10

Give examples, uses and SE of Tetracyclines

TETRACYCLINE

Mechanism: Inhibit 30s ribosome synthesis

Tetracycline, doxycycline

Use: Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetiid

SE: GI intolerance, bone/teeth deposits

11

Give examples and uses of Macrolides

MACROLIDES

Mechanism: Inhibit 50s ribosome synthesis

Clarithromycin
Azithromycin
Erythromycin

Uses: Streptococcal + Staphylococcal soft-tissue infection; Respiratory infection - Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella

12

Use of clindamycin?

Anaerobes

Cellulitis, osteomyelitis - alternative to Flucloxacillin

13

What colonic disease is associated with 50s ribosome inhibitors?

Pseudomembranous colitis

14

Serious staphylococcal infections are treated with a combination of 1) and 2)

1 - Flucloxacillin

2 - Fusidic Acid

(osteomyelitis, endocarditis)

15

Examples, SE and mechanism of Quinolones

Ciprofloxacin

Mechanism: Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis

SE: GI disturbance, photosensitivity, rash, Neuro disturbance

16

Trimethoprim mechanism, SE, uses

Inhibits folic acid synthesis

Causes folate deficiency :. CI in 1st Trimester PREGNANCY

Use: UTIs

17

Metronidazole mechanism, uses

Mechanism: dysregulates DNA synthesis

Treats anaerobic infections

18

Nitrofurantoin use

Uncomplicated UTI

Can be used in 1st trimester

CI in 3rd trimester

19

Name 2 antibiotics which inhibit folate synthesis

Trimethoprim (CI preg)

Sulfonamide

20

Suitable antibiotics to give someone that is pregnant with a UTI

Nitrofurantoin !!
Cefalexin

21

A lady comes in with a UTI.

Most likely cause?
Treatment?
Treatment if she's pregnant?

Likely cause: E coli

Treatment: Trimethoprim

Treatment if 1st trimester - Nitrofurantoin

If 3rd trimester - trimethoprim

*Trimethoprim teratogenic