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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (42)
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1

Patient presents with vomiting, epigastric pain and diarrhoea, 6 hours after eating a meat and cheese pie.

What is the cause?

How do you treat them?

Staphylococcus aureus (exotoxin)

Supportive care: fluids, electrolytes

2

Patient presents with vomiting, epigastric pain and diarrhoea, 6 hours after eating reheated rice.

What is the cause?

Bacillus cereus (exotoxin)

Supportive care: fluids, electrolytes

3

Pt presents with vomiting, headache and watery diarrhoea.

A stool PCR detects norovirus. Where did they likely pick this up?

Cruise ship. Nursing home.

4

Patient has just returned from their travels. They present with watery diarrhoea.

What is the likely cause? What is the treatment?

Enterotoxin E Coli

Ciprofloxacin

5

Patient presents with severe watery, "rice-water" stool.

A stool culture detects a pathogen; what is the likely cause? What is the treatment?

Vibrio CHOLERAE

Supportive care - IV fluids.

6

Patient presents with weeks of loose diarrhoea, cramps, frequent belching and flatulence, and a fatty foul stool.

Their ImmunoCard STAT shows an antigen.

What is the likely cause? What will their stool microscopy show?

What is the treatment?

Giardia Lamblia

Stool microscopy: ova + parasite cysts

Metronidazole

7

Patient presents with watery diarrhoea and is febrile. They recently ate cheese with raw cold vegetables.

What is the likely cause?

Listeria monocytogenes

8

Causes of non-inflammatory diarrhoea (ie watery, non-bloody)

SBEVNGL

Staph aureus
Bacillus cereus
Enterotoxin E coli
Vibrio cholerae
Norovirus
Giardia Lamblia

Listeria monocytogenes (febrile)

Some
Bitches
Eat
Vulgar
Non-inflammatory
Goats,
Leisurely

9

Patient presents with bloody diarrhoea. She recently had some rare beef with fresh veg from a farm,

What will her stool culture likely show?

What is the treatment?

Shigella-toxin E Coli

None.

Do NOT give Abx to children - can cause Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS)

10

Patient comes in with diarrhoea containing blood and pus.

Their stool culture is positive. Likely cause? Treatment?

Shigella

Ciprofloxacin

11

Patient comes in with bloody diarrhoea and fever. They recently ate some undercooked eggs with raw vegetables and pink chicken.

Likely cause? Treatment?

Salmonella

Ciprofloxacin

12

Patient presents with fever and diarrhoea, after eating unpasteurised cheese.

What is the likely cause? Treatment?
What neurological condition are they at a higher risk of?

Campylobacter jejuni

Azithromycin/ Ciprofloxacin

Guillain Barre Syndrome

13

Patient develops bloody diarrhoea and fever whilst in hospital.

What is the likely cause? What may be seen on a colonoscopy?

Treatment?

C. difficile

Colonoscopy: pseudomembranous colitis

Metronidazole

14

What are the causes of inflammatory diarrhoea?

SSSCC

STEC
Shigella
Salmonella
Campylobacter jejuni
C difficile

15

Causes of appendicitis

Normal colonic flora:

Escherichia coli
Peptostreptococcus
Bacteroides fragilis
Pseudomonas

16

Causes of Diverticulitis

Bowel flora

B. fragilis
E. coli

17

Malaria pathogens + transmission

P falciparum - 80%
P Vicax
P Ovale (mild)
P Malariae (persists yrs)
P Knowlesi

Sporozoites via Anopheles mosquito > hepatocytes > schizonts > rupture > merozoites

18

Malaria presentations

Fever/sweats
Haemolytic anaemia
Hepatosplenomegaly

19

Malaria investigations

Thick + Thin Blood Smear with FIELD's/ GIEMSA stain (light microscopy)

1L: FBC - haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, abnormal LFTs

20

Malaria treatments

QUINOLINES
- chloroquine
- Quinine

ANTIFOLATES
- pyrimethamine
- Sulfonamides

RIBSOSOME INHIBITORS
- Tetracycline
- Doxycycline
- Clindamycin

Supportive

21

Pt presents with quickly spreading erythema on the legs, which is tender and warm to touch. There is a wound at the site.

What is the likely diagnosis? Treatment?

Cellulitis: B-haemolytic streptococci - S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae. Staph aureus.

Treatment:
- elevate + mobilize limb
- washout wound
- Empiric IV Flucloxacillin (or Clindamycin)

If MRSA cellulitis: VANCOMYCIN

22

Pt develops warm, tender erythema around surgical site following operation. Their skin is blue-gray (hypoperfused) and there's a loss of sensation. Crepitus is found on exam, as well as Fournier's gangrene.

Cause? Treatment

Necrotizing Fasciitis

Tx:

- Emergency surgical exploration
- Empirical piperacillin-tazobactam + clindamycin
- S. pyogenes - penicillin + clindamycin

23

Gram negative bacteria are grown on which type of agar?

MacConkey agar

24

Pink colonies grow on a MacConkey Agar plate.

What clinically relevant bacteria could these be?

- E coli
- Klebsiella

= Lactose-fermenting Gram Negative Bacillus

= Enterobacteriae

25

Name some gram negative aerobic COLIFORM species

- Escherichia
- Klebsiella
- Salmonella
- Shigella

EKSS

26

Name some gram negative aerobic VIBRIO species

- Vibrio cholerae
- Campylobacter
- Helicobacter
- Haemophilus

VCHH

27

Gram positive cocci are grown on which agar?

Blood Agar

28

Cream yellow colonies grow on a blood agar plate. What's the likely species? What other test can be performed to detect this bacteria?

Staphylococcus aureus

Coagulase/ DNAase test will be positive

29

Gram positive chains =

Streptococcus

30

Gram positive cocci =

Staphylococcus