Anasethesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia Flashcards Preview

Laboratory Animal Science > Anasethesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anasethesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia Deck (34):
1

Why are anaesthesia and analgesia used?

  • legislative reasons
  • ethical reasons
  • technical reasons (animals are still)
  • benefit of reasearch

2

Which classes must be anaesthetised before it is caused physical or mental suffering?

  • mammals
  • birds,
  • reptiles
  • amphibians
  • fish
  • cyclostomatous (Rundmäuler; Wirbeltiere)
  • cephalopodan (Oktopus)

3

What are the goals for anaesthesia?

  • Senstivie block --> absence of pain (analgesia)
  • motoric block --> relaxation of muscles
  • mental block --> sleep/loss of consciousness
  • autonomic block --> vagal inhibition (no salvation, slow HR)

4

What are the components of balanced anaesthesia?

  • premedication
  • induction
  • maintenance
  • postoperative
  • recovery

5

Drugs in premedication - combinations of

  • sedatives
  • calming
  • (anti-cholinergics - reduce salvation, parasympathicus)
  • ((muscle relaxants))
  • pain relief

6

Different working levels of pain relief

  • Local anasethetic
  • anti-inflammatory - periphery
  • morfin and syntetic opiods - centrally
  • calming (benzos)
  • good anasethesia

7

Name some advantages of inhalation anaesthesia

  • good control
  • limited biotransformation
  • easy to regulate the depth
  • quick induction and wake up

8

Name some disadvantages of inhalation anaesthesia

  • large investment (equipment)
  • know-how
  • ventilation

9

Name some advantages with injectable drugs

  • no special equipment
  • cheap
  • simple techniques
  • no effect on working environment
  • easier for batch anaesthesia

10

Name some disadvantages of injectable drugs

  • once a given dose is adminstered, the anaesthetic cannot be changed
  • duration of anaesthetic effect is patient dependent
  • individual variability for a given dose
  • some injectable agents are irritating
  • many lack an antidote
  • often long induction and wake up time

11

From where do you take blood samples in a mouse?

Tail vein or vena saphena on the hind leg (outside of leg)

12

Where do you sample blood in rats?

Teil vein or vena saphena on the hind leg

13

Where do you sample blood from guinea pig?

Vena saphena on the hind leg

14

Where do you sample blood from rabbits?

The margin vein of the ear

15

Name five signs of inflammation

  • calor (heat)
  • rubor (redness)
  • tumor (swelling)
  • dolor (pain)
  • functio laesa (loss of function)

16

Name possible causes for inflammation

  • infectious: bacteria, virus, fungi or parasites
  • trauma
  • physical or chemical agents
  • foreign body
  • tissue necrosis (ischemic)
  • immune reaction

17

What parameters can you use to recognise pain in animals?

  • Behaviour
    • eating
    • drinking
    • activity
    • twiches
    • vocalisation
  • hormonal changes
  • body weight

18

Name some characteristics of the pain face in rabbits

  • orbital tightening
  • cheek flattening
  • nose shape
  • whisker position
  • ear position

19

Name some pain face characteristics of mice

  • orbital tighetening
  • nose bulge
  • cheek bulge
  • ear position
  • whisker change

20

Name some negative effects of pain

  • prolonged wound healing
  • slow recovery with higher chance of post-operative complications
  • wound biting and auto-mutilation
  • higher variability in the experimental group
  • immunological disturbances
  • less water- and food intake
  • less efficient respiration
  • sensitisation --> chronic pain

21

Which properties should acceptable methods of euthanasia process?

  • cause rapid loss of consciousness
  • be painless
  • be easy to perform
  • be minimally invasive

22

Name chemical methods for euthanasia

 

  • inhalation anasethetics
  • inhalation (CO2)
  • injection (barbiturates)

23

Name phyisical methods of euthanasia

  • cervical dislocation
  • decapitation (anaesthetised animals!)
  • blow to the head
    • crush the brain
  • microwave

24

Which form of euthanasia can be used for all animals?

Overdose of anaesthetics and confirm death

25

Name approved euthanaisa methods for mice

  • overdose of anaesthetics and confirm death
  • cervical dislocation
  • CO2

26

Name approved euthanaisa methods for rats

  • overdose of anaesthetics and confirm death
  • decapitation
  • CO2

27

Name approved euthanaisa methods for rabbit and guinea pig

  • overdose of anaesthesia and confirm death
  • blow to the head and bleed out

28

Name approved euthanaisa methods for birds

  • Overdose of anaesthetics and confirm death
  • decapitation
  • cervical dislocation
  • blow to the head
  • destroy the brain

29

Name approved euthanaisa methods for fish

  • overdose of anaesthetics and confirm death
  • crush < 2cm
  • decapitation
  • blow to the head
  • destroy the brain

30

Name approved euthanaisa methods for amphibians

  • decapitation
  • blow to the head
  • destroy the brain

31

euthanasia of young animals

  • NOT CO2
  • decapitation with a guillotine or sharp scissors
  • use isoflurane

32

Survival surgeries and basic rules

  • minimize pain and distress
  • use aseptic surgical procedures
  • gentle tissue handling
  • anaesthetic maintenance
  • proper post-operative care

33

Name the four stages of anaesthetic depth

  1. Ataxia, resistance
  2. excitation
  3. 1 light anaesthesia
    .2 surgical anaesthesia
    .3 deep anaesthesia
    .4 too deep anaesthesia
  4. far too deep anaesthesia

34

Continual observation during surgery

  • respiratory pattern
  • colour of skin and mucous membrane
  • responsiveness to manipulations throughout the procedure
  • rectal temperature
  • heart rate and oxygenation if possible during long or invovled procedures
  • fluids
  • position of the animal
  • document findings every 5-15 minutes