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Flashcards in Laboratory animal behaviour Deck (20):
1

What is evolution?

The change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations

Due to variation, natural selection, and sexual selection

2

Name six general characteristics of domesticated animals

  • Less fear of humans
  • increased social tolerance
  • earlier sexual maturation
  • less pronounced sexual season
  • preserved juvenile behaviour
  • basal behaviour effects unaffected by domestication (nestbuilding in pigs, dust-bathing in hen)

3

What is ethology?

The study of characters of animals in their natural habit

4

What is a behaviour?

  • Movements and sounds associated with an animal of a certain species, age and sex
  • reflexes are not behaviour

5

How are behaviours produced?

By the interaction of internal and external stimuli and motivation

6

Phylogenetic/innate behavirous vs aquired

  • innate: specific to one or several species
  • acquired: specirif to the individual

7

What is the ethoexperimental approach?

  • Combination of ethology and experimental psychology
  • study natural behaviours under controlled conditions in the lab

8

main motives for knowledge about animal behaviour under lab conditions

 

/ Why do we need to know the normal animal behaviour under lab conditions, i.e. why to we bother with ethnoexperimetal studies?

Animal welfare, e.g. humane endpoints

9

Main motives for measuring animal behaviour under laboratory conditions

  • explore the neuronal basis for production of behaviour
  • evaluate the environmental, pharmacological, toxicological, somatic or genetic influences on brain mechanisms and behaviour
  • animal welfare research

10

What is an ethnogram?

  • what we did in our rat lab
  • descriptions of the discrete, species-typical behaviour patterns that form the basic behavioural repertoire of the species
  • registered during a specific time period, condition, ev treatment etc
  • basic parameters: occurence, latency, frequency, duration

11

What are basic parameters included in an ethnogram?

  • occurence
  • latency
  • frequency
  • duration

12

What levels of interpretation are there in the context of an ethonogram?

  • descriptive --> gnwaing
  • functional context --> eating
  • mental state (condition) --> hunger

13

What is anthropomorphism?

To interpret signals and behaviours in animals by means of a human frame of reference --> humanise them

14

Which levels of validity should an animal model possess?

  • face validity
    • same symptoms as in humans
  • construct validity
    • same underlying mechanism
  • predictive vailidity
    • the model allows extrapolation from one species to another, including humans, and from one condition to another

15

Tests commonly used in mice and rats during the developmental period

  • maternal behaviour
  • ultrasonic vocalisation
  • home nest finding
  • freezing
  • play behaviour

16

Which parameters can you score in the novel cage test?

  • locomotion
  • inactivity
  • rearing
  • grooming
  • sniffing
  • intense sniffing

17

Tests commonly used in mice and rats to test emotional behaviours?

  • elevated plus maze
  • zero maze
  • open field
  • light/dark box test

18

Tests commonly used in mice and rats to assess spatial lerning an memory

  • morris water maze
  • radial arm maze
  • barnes maze

19

Tests commonly used in (zebra)fish

  • open field
  • open field with shelter
  • novel object recognition
  • novel tank diving test

20

What can affect my results?

  • Animal specific factors
    • species
    • strain/line
    • inbred/outbred
    • age
    • sex
  • experimental design
  • stress (hormon levels)
  • laboratory factors (CCC)
    • light/dark cycle
    • housing
    • temperature and humidity
    • food
    • ultrasound