Animal models Flashcards Preview

Laboratory Animal Science > Animal models > Flashcards

Flashcards in Animal models Deck (13):
1

What is an animal model?

  • A living organism in which normative biology or behavior can be studied
  • or in which a spontaneous or induced pathological process can be investigated
  • and in which the phenomenon in one or more aspects resembles the same phenomenon in humans or other species of animals

2

Name three categories of animal models

- exploratory model

- explanatory model

- predictive model

3

How can an animal model be?

  • homologous - the symptoms and causes of disease are the same as in human
  • isomorphic - sypmtoms are similar, but cause differs
  • partial - do not mimic the entire disease but may be used to study certain aspects or treatments of the human disease (e.g. schizophrenia induced by amphetamines)

4

Name different animal models for human disease

  • Spontaneous model (high fidelity, low availability)
  • induced model
  • genetically modfied
  • negative model
  • orphan model - first in animal, then in human

5

Animal predictive values for human toxicity

  • hematological HT 91%
  • gastrointestinal HT85%
  • cardiovascular HT 80%
  • neurological HT 22%

6

Name three categories of reasons we choose the appropriate animal model on

  • reasons related to the animal (biological, economic)
  • reasons related to the research project and researchers (tradition/experience)
  • reasons related to society (ethics)

7

why mice?

  • most used experimental animal
  • easy to handle
  • small - takes very little space
  • cheap (compared to rat)
  • short generations
  • large littersize

8

Why rats?

  • Very well documented physiology
  • social and tame
  • learn tasks easily
  • a lot of documentation from basic research in tests of drugs and chemicals
  • many rat models of human diseases: stroke, high BP, diabetes, obesity, arthritis

9

Why Stickleback?

  • easy to breed and manage
  • fesh and salt water
  • environment and environmental factors
  • drugs and chemicals in waterways

10

Why zebrafish?

  • easy to breed and manage
  • tropical freswater fish
  • known genetic setup makeup
  • developmental biology - the eggs are translucent

11

Why pigs?

  • very similar to humans in a metabolic sense
  • omnivorous
  • suitable for research on certain human diseases
    • CV
    • atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia
    • burnwounds
    • training for surgeons

12

Why non human primates?

  • Development of vaccines
  • HIV research
  • studies of social behaviour, memory and learning

13

Why dogs?

  • well known physiology
  • development of pharmaceutical compounds
  • dogs help dogs