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Flashcards in Animal models Deck (13):

What is an animal model?

  • A living organism in which normative biology or behavior can be studied
  • or in which a spontaneous or induced pathological process can be investigated
  • and in which the phenomenon in one or more aspects resembles the same phenomenon in humans or other species of animals


Name three categories of animal models

- exploratory model

- explanatory model

- predictive model


How can an animal model be?

  • homologous - the symptoms and causes of disease are the same as in human
  • isomorphic - sypmtoms are similar, but cause differs
  • partial - do not mimic the entire disease but may be used to study certain aspects or treatments of the human disease (e.g. schizophrenia induced by amphetamines)


Name different animal models for human disease

  • Spontaneous model (high fidelity, low availability)
  • induced model
  • genetically modfied
  • negative model
  • orphan model - first in animal, then in human


Animal predictive values for human toxicity

  • hematological HT 91%
  • gastrointestinal HT85%
  • cardiovascular HT 80%
  • neurological HT 22%


Name three categories of reasons we choose the appropriate animal model on

  • reasons related to the animal (biological, economic)
  • reasons related to the research project and researchers (tradition/experience)
  • reasons related to society (ethics)


why mice?

  • most used experimental animal
  • easy to handle
  • small - takes very little space
  • cheap (compared to rat)
  • short generations
  • large littersize


Why rats?

  • Very well documented physiology
  • social and tame
  • learn tasks easily
  • a lot of documentation from basic research in tests of drugs and chemicals
  • many rat models of human diseases: stroke, high BP, diabetes, obesity, arthritis


Why Stickleback?

  • easy to breed and manage
  • fesh and salt water
  • environment and environmental factors
  • drugs and chemicals in waterways


Why zebrafish?

  • easy to breed and manage
  • tropical freswater fish
  • known genetic setup makeup
  • developmental biology - the eggs are translucent


Why pigs?

  • very similar to humans in a metabolic sense
  • omnivorous
  • suitable for research on certain human diseases
    • CV
    • atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia
    • burnwounds
    • training for surgeons


Why non human primates?

  • Development of vaccines
  • HIV research
  • studies of social behaviour, memory and learning


Why dogs?

  • well known physiology
  • development of pharmaceutical compounds
  • dogs help dogs