What can we do to implement the 3Rs?
- Characterisation - know your animal
- Education and training
All of this in order to minimise variation between animals
What is the reasoning behind laboratory animal welfare?
High quality laboratory animal science requires optimal welfare of the animals
What is included in the definition of animal welfare?
- The animals are in good physiological condition and health
- the animals are feeling well (mentally)
- the animals can live according to their nature and perform their full range of behaviours
Which areas do we assess when we talk about quality of life?
- Feelings and experiences
- biological function
- natural behaviour
Name the 5 freedoms of animal welfare
- Freedom from hunger and thirst
- freedom from discomfort
- freedom from pain, injury, and disease
- freedom from fear and distress
- freedom to express normal behaviour
How do we know if the animal feels pain?
- Similar to anatomical and physiological mechanisms to those involved in pain perception in man
- display of behavioural response to noxious stimuli
- response inhbited by analgesic drugs
Name the three levels of pain
- pain reflex (e.g. burn your hands)
- painful experience (you feel the pain)
- suffering (chronic pain)
Which changes associated with pain can be observed in animals?
- careless about hygiene
- "scream" when touched
- different walking pattern
- decreased body weight
How reliable are face pain scores in mice and rabbits?
- 97% in mice
- 82% in rabbit
What are the three levels of stress?
- acute stress (positive)
- chronic stress (negative)
What is acute stress?
- Survival mechanism
- aid to adapt and cope
- fight - flight - fright
- increased activity of HPA axis and sympathetic NS
- rapid recovery to basal level
- fight - flight - fright
What is chronic stress?
- dystress = bad stress (greek)
- difficulties to cope - prolonged levels of stress hormones
What is distress?
- result of long-term stress
- poor mental condition
- boredom, frustration, anxiety, etc.
- more difficult to define and detect in animals
- stereotypic behaviour
Name some endocrine stress parameters
- adrenal hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, adrenaline, NA)
- pituitary hormone ACTH
- NTs (NA)
- opioid peptides
- immunological markers
Name some physiological stress parameters
- heart rate
- blood pressure
- body weight
Name some pathological stress parameters.
- ulcers in GI tract
- enlarged adrenals
Optimisation of Welfare in concordance with reduction
- high quality animals
- good quality animal facilities and husbandry
- good experimental design
Optimisation of welfare in terms of refinement