Animal Welfare Flashcards Preview

Laboratory Animal Science > Animal Welfare > Flashcards

Flashcards in Animal Welfare Deck (18):

What can we do to implement the 3Rs?

  • Characterisation - know your animal
  • Standardisation
  • Education and training

All of this in order to minimise variation between animals


What is the reasoning behind laboratory animal welfare?

High quality laboratory animal science requires optimal welfare of the animals


What is included in the definition of animal welfare?

  • The animals are in good physiological condition and health
  • the animals are feeling well (mentally)
  • the animals can live according to their nature and perform their full range of behaviours


Which areas do we assess when we talk about quality of life?

  • Feelings and experiences
  • biological function
  • natural behaviour


Name the 5 freedoms of animal welfare

  • Freedom from hunger and thirst
  • freedom from discomfort
  • freedom from pain, injury, and disease
  • freedom from fear and distress
  • freedom to express normal behaviour


How do we know if the animal feels pain?

  • Similar to anatomical and physiological mechanisms to those involved in pain perception in man
  • display of behavioural response to noxious stimuli
  • response inhbited by analgesic drugs


Name the three levels of pain

  • pain reflex (e.g. burn your hands)
  • painful experience (you feel the pain)
  • suffering (chronic pain)


Which changes associated with pain can be observed in animals?

  • inactive
  • cringes
  • careless about hygiene
  • aggressive
  • "scream" when touched
  • different walking pattern
  • decreased body weight


How reliable are face pain scores in mice and rabbits?

  • 97% in mice
  • 82% in rabbit


What are the three levels of stress?

  • acute stress (positive)
  • chronic stress (negative)
  • distress


What is acute stress?

  • Survival mechanism
  • aid to adapt and cope
    • fight - flight - fright
  • increased activity of HPA axis and sympathetic NS
  • rapid recovery to basal level


What is chronic stress?

  • dystress = bad stress (greek)
  • difficulties to cope - prolonged levels of stress hormones


What is distress?

  • result of long-term stress
  • poor mental condition
  • boredom, frustration, anxiety, etc.
  • more difficult to define and detect in animals
  • stereotypic behaviour


Name some endocrine stress parameters

  • adrenal hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, adrenaline, NA)
  • pituitary hormone ACTH
  • NTs (NA)
  • opioid peptides
  • immunological markers


Name some physiological stress parameters

  • heart rate
  • blood pressure
  • body weight


Name some pathological stress parameters.

  • ulcers in GI tract
  • enlarged adrenals
  • atherosclerosis
  • lesions


Optimisation of Welfare in concordance with reduction

  • high quality animals
  • good quality animal facilities and husbandry
  • good experimental design


Optimisation of welfare in terms of refinement

  • condition animals and staff to set-up
  • use non-invasive methods when possible
  • eliminate pain
  • thorough care and monitoring
  • establish welfare protocols
  • introduce early endpoints