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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (78):
1

Cytology

Study of cells

2

Histology

Study of tissues

3

Homeostatis

The tendency of organism to maintain a stable internal balance in its environment

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Negative Feedback

When a stimulus is reduced or dampen

Examples: When a person is out in the heat playing basketball, their body starts to sweat, this sweat helps balance out the internal temperature.

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Positive Feedback

A stimulus is triggered by a stimulus that amplifies rather than diminish.

Example: Childbirth, blood clotting.

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Serous membrane

Thin 2-layered membranes with fluid-filled space that covers the viscera within thoracic & abdominal cavities and lines walls of thorax

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Visceral Layer:

Covers & adheres to organs within cavity

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Parietal Layer:

Lines walls of cavity

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Pleura:

Covers lungs within pleural cavities

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Pericardium:

Covers heart within pericardial cavity

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Peritoneum:

Covers adominal viscera within abdominal cavity.

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Energy

The capacity to do work

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Potential Energy:

Stored energy that is available to do work

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Kinetic

Energy of motion

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Mechanical Energy

Energy used directly to move matter(used by muscle cells)

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Micro anatomy

Study of microscopic structures

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Radiant Energy

Energy that travels in waves(incl. solar energy, light energy)

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Exergonic reactions

Release energy

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Endergonic Reactions

Require(absorb) energy

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The RATE of the chemical reaction is influenced by: (4things)

1.Temperature- molecules move faster as the temp. Increases(inc collisions)

2. Particle size- small molecules move faster

3. Concentration - increases reactant concentrations (more collisions)
4. Catalysts: inc. rate of chemical reactions without themselves being changed in the reaction

ENZYMES are biological catalysts

21

Inorganic Molecules:

Molecules that do not contain carbon and hydrogen(salts, strong acids, and bases, metal compounds)

22

Carbohydrates

- Monosaccharides: simple sugars with a backbone of 3 to 7 atoms

-Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides joined by CONDENSATION

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Polysaccharides includes STARCH:

STARCH is more moderately branched polymer of GLUCOSE, and is the storage form of carbohydrates in PLANT CELLS

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Polysaccharides include: Cellulose

CELLULOSE is an unbranched polymer of glucose, with adjacent claims held together by HYDROGEN BONDS giving it a very rigid structure. It is the major component of plant cell walls.

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Lipids:

-Neutral fats(fats or oils)

One triglyceride = Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

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Proteins are composed of

Amino Acid

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Each amino acids has a central carbon bonded to an: (4 groups)

An amino group, a carboxylic acid group, a hydrogen atom, and the remaining side chain (R group)

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Desaturation:

Disruption of specific 3D structure of a protein by increasing TEMPERATURE or changing pH.

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Nucleic Acids are polymers of

Nucleotide monomers.

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A nucleotide:

(Say its components)

= a pentose sugar + a phosphate + a nitrogenous(nitrogen-containing) base.

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DNA is:

The genetic material of the cell(inherited from parents)

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DNA is composed of four nucleotide subunits:

Adenine( A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and thymine(T)

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Adenine and Guanine are:

Purine bases

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Cytosine and Thymine are:

Pyridine bases

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DNA forms a_______ structure

Double-helical structure(DNA is double stranded)

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DNA strands of the double-helix are:

Complementary to each other so the second strand can be deduced, and synthesized in the cell, by simply comparing complementary bases.

37

RNA is:

Synthesized from 1 strand of DNA.

RNA does NOT form a double helix(no pairing of complimentary bases)

RNA is single-stranded.

RNA also uses 4 nucleotide subunits; however, Uracil (U) replaces thymine in RNA.

38

Plasma Membrane

Outer boundary of cells(except plants cells-----cell wall)

Phospholipid Bilayer: Semipermeable and Selectively Permiable

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Facilitated Diffusion:

Passage of small molecules(glucose,amino acids) across the plasma membrane even though they may not be lipid-soluble.

A CARRIER PROTEIN assists movement of molecules DOWN CONCENTRATION GRADIENT

NO energy is required

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Filtration:

A pressure gradient pushes solute-containing fluid(filtrate) from area of high pressure to area of low pressure.

41

Cell adhesion molecules(CAMS)

Anchor cells to extracellular space and each other.

-used by cells to assist in migration and recruit immune cells to sites of infection/injury.

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Cytoskeletons:

Composed of microtubles, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments.

Functions in maintaining shape of cell and movement of sub cellular structures.

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Microtubles:

Composed of tublin dimers coiled into tubelike structures

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Intermediate Filaments and Actin Filaments:

Have structural roles throughout the cell.

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Actin filaments:

Combine with myosin in muscle cells to enable muscle movement.

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Rough ER

Associated with proteins; transports and/or secrete outside the cell.

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Smooth ER:

Synthesizes phospholipids in all cells.

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Microbodies:

Smaller version of lysosomes with specific enzyme activities.

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Peroxisomes:

Are micro-bodies that contain enzymes for oxidizing certain organic molecules with the release of hydrogen peroxide(breaks down toxins into water and oxygen.

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Nucleus:

Stores genetic information in all eukaryotic cells.

DNA is organized into distinct chromosomes.

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Within each nucleolus,

Ribosomal RNA is produced and joins with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes.

The nucleus is bounded by a porous membrane, the nuclear envelope, which regulates passage of molecules into and out of the nucleus.

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Cell Cycle: consists of


(Describe it)

Interphase: G1, S, and G2 stages

G1 stage: is a growth(formerly gap) stage during which organelles increase in number to produce enough for two new cells.

S phase - synthesis stage of the cell, when DNA is replicated.

G2 stage: also a growth stage in which metabolism provides new metabolites and energy for the mitosis division.

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DNA replication________.

Carried out by the enzyme DNA Polymerase, as well as some additional protein factors.

54

Gene Expression:

DNA is TRANSCRIBED to RNA in the nucleus

Transcription is carried out by a 5' to 3' RNA Polymerase, as well as additional protein factors.

The results of these modifications is: mature mRNA.

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Mature mRNA is

translated to protein in the cytoplasm(at the ribosomes)

56

Epithelial Tissue( epithelium):

A sheet of cells that lines a body cavity or covers a body surface

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Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue:

Give location and function

Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei and little cytoplasm- scale like cells

Location: in kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, heart lining, blood vessels, lining of the ventral body cavity.

Functions: diffusion and filtration; secretes lubricating substances in serosae.

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue:

Give location and function.

Single layer of cube-shaped cells with large spherical nuclei

Locations: in kidney tubules

Functions: secretion and absorption

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Simple Columnar Epithelial tissue:

Single layer of column-shaped cells with oval nuclei, some have cilia or microvilli;

Locations: non-ciliated in most of digestive tract, gallbladder and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliates in small bronchi, some regions of uterus.

Functions: absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes. Ciliates propels mucus, reproductive cells.

60

Pseudo-stratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue:

Single layer of mostly column-shaped cells with different heights and nuclei at different levels; some have cilia, may include goblet cells.

Locations: male's sperm, trachea,

Functions: Absorption, secretion of mucus

61

Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue:

Multiple layers; basal layer cuboidal or columnar carry out metabolism & mitosis; outer layers are keratinized.

Location: esophagus, mouth & vagina;
Keratinized type forms epidermis of skin.

Functions: protection

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Stratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue:

Give function and location

Several layers - basal layer usually cuboidal

Locations: Penis(male urethra) and some large ducts of glands.

Functions: stretches and dis tends urinary organ.

63

Connective Tissue:

Most abundant primary tissue.

-extracellular matrix(collagen or elastin fibers; calcium phosphate(bone)

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Ground Substance:

Fills space between cells and contains fibers

- composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins and proteoglycans.

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Areolar Connective Tissue:

Give location and function:

Has 3 fiber types: fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages, and some white blood cells.

Locations: under many epithelia(forms lamina propria); around organs and capillaries

Function: Meant to protect and support organs.

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Adipose Connective Tissue:

Closely packed adipocyres(fat cells with large fat droplet)

Locations: under skin, around kidneys & eyeballs, within abdomen , breasts

Functions: provides insulation for the body tissue and a source of stored food.

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Reticular Connective Tissue:

Reticular fiber network in loose ground substance; reticular cells

Location: lymphoid organs

Functions: internal skeleton for support of other cell types

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tRNA

molecules carry amino acids to the ribosome during translation ( a tRNA for each amino acid)

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rRNA

along with proteins comprise the structure of the 2 subunits of the ribosome.

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Transitional Epithelial tissues

Several layers - basal layer usually cuboidal

Locations: Ureters, bladder and part of urethra

Functions: stretches and distends urinary organ.

71

Reticular Connective Tissue

Reticular fiber network in loose ground substance.

Location: lymphoid organs.

Functions: internal skeleton for support of other cell types.

72

Dense Regular Connective tissue

Dense(primarily) parallel collagen fibers, elastin fibers; fibroblasts.

Location: tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses.

Functions: muscle to bone of other muscles, attaches bones to bones; withstands high stress.

73

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

Irregular shaped collagen fibers, few elastin fibers; fibroblasts.

Location: dermis of skin, digestive sub mucosa, fibrous capsules of organs & joints.

Functions: withstands tension, adds structural strength.

74

Hyaline Cartilage

Collagen fibers form glassy(invisible) network; Chondrocytes in lacunae.

Location: embryonic skeleton, covers long bones in joints, costal cartilage of ribs, cartilage of nose, trachea & larynx

75

Elastic Cartilage

Similar to hyaline cartilage, with elastin fibers in matrix.

Location: external ear(pinna), epiglottis

Functions: maintains shape while adding flexibility

76

Fibrocartilage

Similar to hyaline cartilage, less firm with thick collagen fibers in matrix

Location: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, knee joint discs

Function: tensile strength, absorbs shock.

77

Bone tissue

Red blood cells (erythrocytes) & white blood cells (leukocytes) in fluid matrix(plasma)

Location: blood vessels

Function: transports oxygen & carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes & other substances.

78

Nervous Tissue: neurons and supporting cells

Location: brain, spinal cord and nerves

Function: transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors to effectors.