Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (78):
Study of cells
Study of tissues
The tendency of organism to maintain a stable internal balance in its environment
When a stimulus is reduced or dampen
Examples: When a person is out in the heat playing basketball, their body starts to sweat, this sweat helps balance out the internal temperature.
A stimulus is triggered by a stimulus that amplifies rather than diminish.
Example: Childbirth, blood clotting.
Thin 2-layered membranes with fluid-filled space that covers the viscera within thoracic & abdominal cavities and lines walls of thorax
Covers & adheres to organs within cavity
Lines walls of cavity
Covers lungs within pleural cavities
Covers heart within pericardial cavity
Covers adominal viscera within abdominal cavity.
The capacity to do work
Stored energy that is available to do work
Energy of motion
Energy used directly to move matter(used by muscle cells)
Study of microscopic structures
Energy that travels in waves(incl. solar energy, light energy)
The RATE of the chemical reaction is influenced by: (4things)
1.Temperature- molecules move faster as the temp. Increases(inc collisions)
2. Particle size- small molecules move faster
3. Concentration - increases reactant concentrations (more collisions)
4. Catalysts: inc. rate of chemical reactions without themselves being changed in the reaction
ENZYMES are biological catalysts
Molecules that do not contain carbon and hydrogen(salts, strong acids, and bases, metal compounds)
- Monosaccharides: simple sugars with a backbone of 3 to 7 atoms
-Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides joined by CONDENSATION
Polysaccharides includes STARCH:
STARCH is more moderately branched polymer of GLUCOSE, and is the storage form of carbohydrates in PLANT CELLS
Polysaccharides include: Cellulose
CELLULOSE is an unbranched polymer of glucose, with adjacent claims held together by HYDROGEN BONDS giving it a very rigid structure. It is the major component of plant cell walls.
-Neutral fats(fats or oils)
One triglyceride = Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
Proteins are composed of
Each amino acids has a central carbon bonded to an: (4 groups)
An amino group, a carboxylic acid group, a hydrogen atom, and the remaining side chain (R group)
Disruption of specific 3D structure of a protein by increasing TEMPERATURE or changing pH.
Nucleic Acids are polymers of
(Say its components)
= a pentose sugar + a phosphate + a nitrogenous(nitrogen-containing) base.
The genetic material of the cell(inherited from parents)
DNA is composed of four nucleotide subunits:
Adenine( A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and thymine(T)
Adenine and Guanine are:
Cytosine and Thymine are:
DNA forms a_______ structure
Double-helical structure(DNA is double stranded)
DNA strands of the double-helix are:
Complementary to each other so the second strand can be deduced, and synthesized in the cell, by simply comparing complementary bases.
Synthesized from 1 strand of DNA.
RNA does NOT form a double helix(no pairing of complimentary bases)
RNA is single-stranded.
RNA also uses 4 nucleotide subunits; however, Uracil (U) replaces thymine in RNA.
Outer boundary of cells(except plants cells-----cell wall)
Phospholipid Bilayer: Semipermeable and Selectively Permiable
Passage of small molecules(glucose,amino acids) across the plasma membrane even though they may not be lipid-soluble.
A CARRIER PROTEIN assists movement of molecules DOWN CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
NO energy is required
A pressure gradient pushes solute-containing fluid(filtrate) from area of high pressure to area of low pressure.
Cell adhesion molecules(CAMS)
Anchor cells to extracellular space and each other.
-used by cells to assist in migration and recruit immune cells to sites of infection/injury.
Composed of microtubles, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments.
Functions in maintaining shape of cell and movement of sub cellular structures.
Composed of tublin dimers coiled into tubelike structures
Intermediate Filaments and Actin Filaments:
Have structural roles throughout the cell.
Combine with myosin in muscle cells to enable muscle movement.
Associated with proteins; transports and/or secrete outside the cell.
Synthesizes phospholipids in all cells.
Smaller version of lysosomes with specific enzyme activities.
Are micro-bodies that contain enzymes for oxidizing certain organic molecules with the release of hydrogen peroxide(breaks down toxins into water and oxygen.
Stores genetic information in all eukaryotic cells.
DNA is organized into distinct chromosomes.
Within each nucleolus,
Ribosomal RNA is produced and joins with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes.
The nucleus is bounded by a porous membrane, the nuclear envelope, which regulates passage of molecules into and out of the nucleus.
Cell Cycle: consists of
Interphase: G1, S, and G2 stages
G1 stage: is a growth(formerly gap) stage during which organelles increase in number to produce enough for two new cells.
S phase - synthesis stage of the cell, when DNA is replicated.
G2 stage: also a growth stage in which metabolism provides new metabolites and energy for the mitosis division.
Carried out by the enzyme DNA Polymerase, as well as some additional protein factors.
DNA is TRANSCRIBED to RNA in the nucleus
Transcription is carried out by a 5' to 3' RNA Polymerase, as well as additional protein factors.
The results of these modifications is: mature mRNA.
Mature mRNA is
translated to protein in the cytoplasm(at the ribosomes)
Epithelial Tissue( epithelium):
A sheet of cells that lines a body cavity or covers a body surface
Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue:
Give location and function
Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei and little cytoplasm- scale like cells
Location: in kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, heart lining, blood vessels, lining of the ventral body cavity.
Functions: diffusion and filtration; secretes lubricating substances in serosae.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue:
Give location and function.
Single layer of cube-shaped cells with large spherical nuclei
Locations: in kidney tubules
Functions: secretion and absorption
Simple Columnar Epithelial tissue:
Single layer of column-shaped cells with oval nuclei, some have cilia or microvilli;
Locations: non-ciliated in most of digestive tract, gallbladder and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliates in small bronchi, some regions of uterus.
Functions: absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes. Ciliates propels mucus, reproductive cells.
Pseudo-stratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue:
Single layer of mostly column-shaped cells with different heights and nuclei at different levels; some have cilia, may include goblet cells.
Locations: male's sperm, trachea,
Functions: Absorption, secretion of mucus
Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue:
Multiple layers; basal layer cuboidal or columnar carry out metabolism & mitosis; outer layers are keratinized.
Location: esophagus, mouth & vagina;
Keratinized type forms epidermis of skin.
Stratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue:
Give function and location
Several layers - basal layer usually cuboidal
Locations: Penis(male urethra) and some large ducts of glands.
Functions: stretches and dis tends urinary organ.
Most abundant primary tissue.
-extracellular matrix(collagen or elastin fibers; calcium phosphate(bone)
Fills space between cells and contains fibers
- composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins and proteoglycans.
Areolar Connective Tissue:
Give location and function:
Has 3 fiber types: fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages, and some white blood cells.
Locations: under many epithelia(forms lamina propria); around organs and capillaries
Function: Meant to protect and support organs.
Adipose Connective Tissue:
Closely packed adipocyres(fat cells with large fat droplet)
Locations: under skin, around kidneys & eyeballs, within abdomen , breasts
Functions: provides insulation for the body tissue and a source of stored food.
Reticular Connective Tissue:
Reticular fiber network in loose ground substance; reticular cells
Location: lymphoid organs
Functions: internal skeleton for support of other cell types
molecules carry amino acids to the ribosome during translation ( a tRNA for each amino acid)
along with proteins comprise the structure of the 2 subunits of the ribosome.
Transitional Epithelial tissues
Several layers - basal layer usually cuboidal
Locations: Ureters, bladder and part of urethra
Functions: stretches and distends urinary organ.
Reticular Connective Tissue
Reticular fiber network in loose ground substance.
Location: lymphoid organs.
Functions: internal skeleton for support of other cell types.
Dense Regular Connective tissue
Dense(primarily) parallel collagen fibers, elastin fibers; fibroblasts.
Location: tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses.
Functions: muscle to bone of other muscles, attaches bones to bones; withstands high stress.
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Irregular shaped collagen fibers, few elastin fibers; fibroblasts.
Location: dermis of skin, digestive sub mucosa, fibrous capsules of organs & joints.
Functions: withstands tension, adds structural strength.
Collagen fibers form glassy(invisible) network; Chondrocytes in lacunae.
Location: embryonic skeleton, covers long bones in joints, costal cartilage of ribs, cartilage of nose, trachea & larynx
Similar to hyaline cartilage, with elastin fibers in matrix.
Location: external ear(pinna), epiglottis
Functions: maintains shape while adding flexibility
Similar to hyaline cartilage, less firm with thick collagen fibers in matrix
Location: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, knee joint discs
Function: tensile strength, absorbs shock.
Red blood cells (erythrocytes) & white blood cells (leukocytes) in fluid matrix(plasma)
Location: blood vessels
Function: transports oxygen & carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes & other substances.