Flashcards in Cellular Respiration Deck (32):
__________ is entry of air into lungs and gas exchange between alveoli and blood.
________ is exchange of gas between blood and the cells + intracellular respiration processes.
During ________, high energy H atoms removed from organic molecules (dehydrogenation)
------------ = The presence of O2(glycolysis, pyruvate, krebs cycle, oxidative phospohrylation) water is the final product.
___________ = Decomposition of glucose into pyruvate in cytosol.
2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 pyruvate (+2 H20 + 2 H+)
______ (enzyme) adds 2nd phosphate, makes fructose 1,6 biphosphate
___________ = occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.
Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
Catalyzed by _____ enzyme
Pyruvate Decarboxylation occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.
Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
NET: 2 NADH + 2 CO2
Catalyzed by PDC enzyme
_________: Acetyl CoA merges with oxaloacetate to form citrate.
_________ takes place in: ?
Krebs Cycle takes place in mitochondrial matrix.
Krebs cycle produces ______, _______, ______, and _____ each turn.
What is the total amount with 2 cycles?
Krebs cycle produces: 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP, and 2 CO2 are produced per turn.
Total amount: 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP, 2 CO2.
__________ takes place in the inner membrane/cristae (folds which increase SA for more _____ action).
ETC (electron transport chain)
_________ __________ - process of ADP ---> ATP from NADH and FADH2 via passing of electrons through various carrier proteins; energy doesn't accompany the phosphate group but comes from the electrons in the ETC establishing an H+ gradient that supplies energy to ATP synthase.
__________ is a soluble carrier dissolved in the membrane that can be fully reduced/ oxidized, it passes electrons.
Coenzyme Q (CoQ)/ Ubiquinone
________ is a protein carrier in the ETF, common in many living organisms,
______________ in Mitochondria
Mechanism of ATP generation that occurs when energy is stored in the form of a proton concentration gradient.
ATP synthase uses the energy in this gradient to create ATP by letting the protons flow through this channel
ATP is an _______ nucleotide
Anaerobic Respiration (cytosol) includes _____ & ______.
glycolysis and fermentation.
________ occurs in plants, fungi, and bacteria.
Pyruvate ----> acetaldehyde + CO2, then acetaldehyde ------> ethanol (and NADH ---> NAD+)
-This occurs in _________!
________ occurs in human muscle cells.
Pyruvate ----> lactate (and NADH ----> NAD+)
Lactic Acid Fermentation.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
_________ is transported to liver for conversion back to glucose once surplus ATP available
_______ _______ can tolerate oxygen presence but don't use it.
____ _______ cannot live in the presence of oxygen.
_____ stores glucose as glycogen, glucagon is the opposite effect and turns on glycogen dehydration.
_____ activates PFK enzyme, glucagon inhibits it.
Think about it like this: Insulin means "hey, we've got a lot of glucose around, so lets chew it up' whereas glucagon says "uhoh, not enough glucose around, don't chew it up ---- we need it for the brain, other tissues can use other energy sources"
______ are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides, most of which cant be converted to glucose or glycolytic intermediates.
Which cells are capable of storing glycogen?
All cells are capable of producing and storing glycogen but only muscle cells and especially liver cell cells have large amounts.
________ store more energy than cabohydrates per C, their carbons are in more reduced state.
_______ in adipose tissue are hormone sensitve.
Glycerol ----->_______, enters glycolysis
Fatty acids in blood combine with _____ which carries Acetyl CoA
Unsaturated fatty acids produce 1 less _____ for each double bond.