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Organisms are classified into categories called Taxa(singular, Taxon)

A SPECIES name is given a name consisting of GENUS(closely related animal)name and SPECIES name. Domesticated dog is in genus CANIS and name canis familiaris; Wolf is Canis Lupis.


(Dumb Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Sand)

Genera that share related features; then species


Systematics: Describe


Study of evolutionary relationships among organisms (Phylogeny = evolutionary relationships)


Eukaryotic Cells:

Chromosomes contain long, linear DNA with histone; enclosed in nucleus; organelles; 9+2 microtubule array flagella and cilia.


Prokaryotic Cells: List

What do flagella use to movie

Single chromosome is short, circular DNA with/without histone; may contain PLASMID(small circular DNA molecules); no nucleus; no organelles; flagella consist of chains of FLAGELLIN instead of "9+2" microtubules.

*Flagella use proton motive force to spin and give locomotion in bacteria (electrical gradient!)



Make their own organic materials;
Phototrophs = uses light
Chemoautotrophs =chemicals such as H2S, NH3, NO2, NO3.



- What are some heterotrophs and saprobes(Saprophytes)

Obtain energy by consuming organic substances produced by autotrophs.
-Some heterotrophs are parasites- obtain energy from the living tissues of a host.

Saprobes/Saprophytes = Obtain their energy from dead, decaying matter= > decomposers


Heterotrophs: Obligate aerobes, anaerobes, and Facultative anaerobe

Obligate Aerobes = must have O2 to live.

Obligate Anaerobes = Must not have O2 to live.

Facultative Anaerobe= Grow in presence of O2, but can switch to anaerobic metabolism when O2 is absence.


Domain Archaea
-What are they?Euk?Prok?
What features do they have?

They are also Prokaryotes but differ.
Archaea cells wall various polysaccharide.
Phospholipid components such as glycerol is different(isomer of either bacteria or eukaryotes)
Hydrocarbon chain is branched (straight chain for others_ and ether-linkages instead of ester-linkages.


Domain Archaea: How are they similar with Eukaryotes?

1.) DNA of both archaea and eukaryotes are associated with histone; not bacterial DNA.
2.) Ribosome activity is not inhibited by antibiotics streptomycin and chloramphenicol unlike bacteria.


Domain Archaea: Some major groups of Archaea:


Obligate anaerobes that produce CH4 as by-product of obtaining energy from H2 to fix CO2(Mud, guts)


Domain Archaea: Some major groups of Archaea:

- Extremeophiles

Live in extreme environments.


Domain Archaea: Some major groups of Archaea:

They are salt loving. Living in high salt environment. Most are aerobic and heterotrophic; Others anaerobic and photosynthetic with pigment BACTERIORHODOPSIN.


Domain Archaea: Some major groups of Archaea:

Heat loving. They are sulfur-based chemoautotroph.


Domain Bacteria: Five Kingdoms
Cell Wall?
Have histones?
Ribosome activity?

Cell Wall = peptidoglycan(polymer of monosaccharide w amino acid.
-bacterial DNA is not associated w histone;
- Ribosome activity is inhibited by above antibiotics.


Domain Bacteria: Its categorized in 5 ways
1.Mode of nutrition
2.What do they produce?
3. Means of motility?
4. Shapes?
5. Cell wall? What is gram-positive/negative

1.Categorized by their mode of nutrition
2. Ability to produce ENDOSPORES(resistant bodies that contain DNA and small amount of cytoplasm surrounded by durable wall)
3. Means of motility- Flagella, gliding material
4.Shapes: Cocci(spherical), Bacilli(rod-shaped), Spirilla(spirals)
5. Thick peptidoglycan wall cell(gram-positive)
Thin peptidoglycan covered with lipopolysaccharides(gram-negative)


Domain Bacteria:
-Cyanobacteria, phycobilins, heterocysts

Cyanobacteria: Photosynthetic; use chlorophyll to capture light energy, releases O2.
-They contain accessory pigment PHYCOBILINS
- Heterocysts- Produce nitrogen-fixing enzyme into NH3.


Domain Bacteria:
-Nitrifying Bacteria-"they convert this into that?"

They are autotrophs,
Some of these are NITRIFYING BACTERIA because they convert nitrate (NO2) to nitrate (NO3)


Domain Bacteria:
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria

They are heterotrophs that fix N2, lives in nodules of plant (mutualism)


Domain Bacteria:

They are coiled bacteria that move with corkscrew motion, internal flagella between cell wall layers.


Domain Eukarya: Four Kingdoms

-Kingdom Protista: subcategories?

The subcategories are phylum.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

One to three flagella at apical(leading) end. Instead of cellulose cell wall, they have thin, protein strips called PELLICLES that wrap over their cell membranes.==> Heterotrophic in absence of light some have EYESPOT that permits PHOTOAXIS(the ability to move in response to light)


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

Has two flagella. One is posterior, 2nd flagellum is transverse and rests in encircling mid groove perpendicular to 1st flagellum. Some are bioluminescent. Others produce nerve toxin that concentrate in filter-feeding shellfish => Cause illness to human when eaten.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

They are unicellular, often characterized by the silica shell.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista
- Brown Algae
What are they?
Uni or multicellular?

Multicellular and have flagellated sperm cells (giant seaweed)


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista
- Rhodophyta, phycobilins
Uni or multi?

Red algae(red accessory pigments called PHYCOBILINS); multicellular and gametes do not have flagella.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista
- Chlorophyta

-Green alga, have both chlorophyll A and B, cellulose cell walls, store energy in starch.
-Some species have ISOGAMOUS gamete(both sperm/egg equal in size and motile)
- Others have ANISOGAMOUS(sperm/egg differ in size)
-OOGAMOUS - large cell remains w the parent and is fertilized by small/motile sperm)
-CHAROPHTES( believed to be ancestor of plants.)
-PROTOZOA - (animal-like) protists are heterotrophs; unicellular eukaryotes.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

Protozoa/animal-like heterotrophs - RHIZOPODA

RHIZOPODA - Amoebas that move by extensions of their cell body called PSEUDOPODIA- encircle food and absorb it by phagocytosis.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

Protozoa/animal-like heterotrophs :- FORMANIFERA aka forams

Have tests usually made of calcium carbonate=> oil deposits.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista
Protozoa/animal-like heterotrophs - APICOMPLEXANS
*Apical Complex
* Motility? How does it form?
*What is malaria caused by?

They are parasites of animals. They are characterized by an APICAL COMPLEX, a complex of organelles located at an end(apex) of the cell.
- No physical motility; form spores which are dispersed by hosts that complete their life cycle.
Malaria is cause by SPOROZOAN


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

Protozoa/animal-like heterotrophs - CILIATES:

Used cilia for moving and other functions; mouths, pores, contractile vacuoles, two kinds of nuclei(large macronucleus and several small nuclei) most complex of all cells => paramecium.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

Protozoa/animal-like heterotrophs - CILIATES:
What do they resemble? Uni/ or multicellular?

Genus of protozoa, shapeless unicellular.
FUNGUS-LIKE protists resemble fungi(form filaments/spore-beating bodies)


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

FUNGUS-LIKE protists resemble fungi(form filaments/spore-beating bodies): CELLULAR SLIME MOLDS
*cyclic AMP

Funguslike and protozoalike characteristics; Spores germinate into AMOEBAs which feed on bacteria;

when no food, amoebas aggregates into single unit SLUG(individ. cells of slug mobilize into stalk with capsule at top to release spores => germinate and repeat cycle;

The stimulus for aggregation is "cyclic AMP" which is secreted by the amoebas that experience food deprivation first.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

FUNGUS-LIKE protists resemble fungi(form filaments/spore-beating bodies) : PLASMODIAL SLIME MOLDS

Grow as a single, spreading mass( PLASMODIUM) which feeds on decaying vegetation;
When there is no food => Stalks stalks bearing spore capsules form => haploid spores released from capsule germinate into haploid amoeboid/flagellated cells, fuse to form diploid cells => grow into plasmodium; no mutualistic with other.


Domain Eukarya: Kingdom Protista

FUNGUS-LIKE protists- Oomycota

Water molds, white rusts. They are either parasites or saprobes(gets nutrition from nonliving/decaying organic matter)

-Forms filaments (hyphae) which secret enzymes that digest surrounding substances like fungi.
HYPHAE lacks SEPTA(or cross walls) which is in many of true fungi partition the filaments into compartments.

-Coenocytic= Lack septa, containing many nuclei within a single cell; cell walls are made of cellulose rather than chitlin of fungi.


Kingdom Fungi: How do they grow?
*What are they?

-fungi grow as filaments (HYPHAE)
- MYCELLIUM is a mass of hyphae
- Some fungi have a SEPTUM which divide filament into compartments containing single nucleus.

-Cell walls contain CHITLIN(N-containing polysaccharide)
-Fungi are either parasites/saprobes(decomposer) absorbing food products due to digestive enzymes.
-Parasitic Fungi have hyphae (HAUSTORIA) that penetrate host.


Kingdom Fungi: Stages of Sexual Reproduction


This is fusing of cells from two different fungal strains to produce a single cell w/ nuclei from both strains.

A pair of haploid nuclei, one each strain is called DIKARYON. Dikaryotic hypha is hypha containing dikaryon.


Kingdom Fungi: Stages of Sexual Reproduction


Fusing 2 haploid nuclei of a dikaryon to form single diploid nucleus.


Kingdom Fungi: Stages of Sexual Reproduction


of the diploid nucleus restores haploid condition; daughter cells develop into haploid spores which germinate haploid hyphae( has 1 fungal strain) => merge into dikaryon and repeat.


Kingdom Fungi: Stages of Asexual Reproduction

-Asexual spores(what are its two types)

Fragmentation - The breaking up of hyphae

Budding -In budding, an organism grows a part of of its main body and this new growth eventually breaks off to become a new organism.



Kingdom Fungi: Stages of Asexual Reproduction


Produced in capsules (SPORANGIA) that are each borne on a stalk called SPORANGIOPGORE.


Kingdom Fungi: Stages of Asexual Reproduction

What does it specialize in doing?
Sexual or asexual?

Formed at tips of specialized hyphae, not enclosed inside sac; Hyphae bearing conidia are called CONIDIOPHORES; asexual reproduction


Kingdom Fungi: Six fungus groups

What are groups considered in divisions and classes

Divisions - MYCOTA

Classes - MYCETE


Kingdom Fungi: Six fungus groups


- Lacks septa, excepts filaments border reproductive filaments; reproduce sexually by fusion of hyphae from different strains, followed by plasmogamy, karyogamy, and meiosis.

Haploid ZYGOSPORES are produced, which germinate into new hyphae. *Bread mold is a typical zygomycete.


Kingdom Fungi: Six fungus groups



- They are a small group of fungi that occur only in mutualistic associations with roots of plants.

-In these fungus-root relationships called MYCORRHIZAE, the plant provides carbohydrates to the fungus and the fungus increases the ability of the plant roots to absorb nutrient(Phosphorus)


Kingdom Fungi: Six fungus groups

* Ascocarp

- Has septa and reproduces sexually by producing haploid ASCOSPORES.

-After going through plasmogomy of hyphae from different strains, dikaryotic hypha produces more filaments by mitosis.

Karyogamy and meiosis subsequently occur in terminal hyphal cells producing 4 haploid cells. These 4 cells divide by mitosis to produce 8 haploid ascospores in a sac called an ASCUS.

In many ascomycetes, the asci are grouped together into a specialized fruiting body, the ASCOCARP.
-The ascomycetes include yeasts, powdery mildrews, and truffles.


Kingdom Fungi: Six fungus groups

* Basidia

Has septa and reproduce sexually by producing haploid BASIDIOSPORES.

Plasmogamy=> mitosis => fruiting body (BASIDIOCARP)
Ex- A mushroom for example, is a basidiocarp.

Karyogamy occurs in terminal hyphal cells called BASIDA, followed by meiosis to produce 4 haploid basidiospores.


Kingdom Fungi: Six fungus groups

- Deuteromycota

Imperfect fungi, artificial group (no sexual reproductive cycle)

-Penicillium produces penicillin.


Kingdom Fungi: Six fungus groups


Mutualistic associations between fungi and algae(usually chlorophyta/cyanobacteria provide carb.)

-They also provide Nitrogen if algae is nitrogen-fixing; fungus(ascomycete) provides water and protection (pigments from UV light, or toxic chemicals for grazer.) from environment.


Kingdom Plantae: Adaptations for survival on land

-Dominant generation?

Dominant generation is diploid sporophyte generation (except primitave bryophytes - mosses, liverworts, and hornworts); provides two copies again genetic damage.


Kingdom Plantae: Adaptations for survival on land


Waxy covering that reduces desiccation (drying up/water loss)


Kingdom Plantae: Adaptations for survival on land
-Vascular System
*Xylem, *Phloem

Vascular system reduces dependency on water (cells no longer need to be close to water) => Formation of specialized tissues : true leaves, true stems(support leaves), true roots.

Xylem- water transport
Phloem - Transports sugar.


Kingdom Plantae: Adaptations for survival on land

-In primitive plant divisions
-In advanced division

In primitive plant divisions(flagellated sperm require water to swim to eggs.)

In advanced division (coniferophyta and anthophyta)
Sperm packaged as pollen(wind)


Kingdom Plantae: Adaptations for survival on land


Gametophytes are enclosed(protected) inside an ovary.


Kingdom Plantae: Adaptations for survival on land

- Adaptations(coniferophyta + anthophyta)

(coniferophyta + anthophyta) of seasonal variations in availability of water and light.
Some are DECIDUOUS - sheds leaves to prevent water loss through slow-growing seasons.


Kingdom Plantae: List of major plant divisions

-Bryophytes (3 groups of unspecified plants)

They have 3 groups of unspecified plants: Mosses, Liverworts, and hornworts.

-Gametes are produced in GAMETANGIA(protective structures) on gametophytes, dominant haploid stage of life cycle of bryophytes.

-Anteridium(male gametangium) produces flagellated sperm that swim through water.

-Archegonium(female) produces egg.
Zygote grows into diploid structure (still connected to gametophyte)


Kingdom Plantae: List of major plant divisions

-What is the structure of Bryophytes for mosses?

-What do bryophytes lack?

In mosses, this structure is a stalk bearing capsule which contains haploid spores produced by meiosis => spores dispersed by wind and germinate grow into haploid gametophytes which produces anteridium + archegonium.

-Lacks true root, true leaves, true stems (lack of vascular tissues); must remain in water.


Kingdom Plantae: Tracheophytes

- True root, leaves, and stems; germination of antheridium +
archegonium (swim) produces diploid zygote into sporophyte (dominant generation)


Kingdom Plantae: Lycophyta

What does this include?

Club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts (herbaceous plants); club and spike mosses produce clusters of spore-bearing sporangia in conelike structure called STROBILI . The "resurrection plant," a plant that recovers from a deadlike appearance when watered, is a spike moss.


Kingdom Plantae: Pterophyta (includes 3 groups)

-Ferns- what does it produce?
_____ undergoes_____ to become_____.

Produces clusters of sporangia called SORI, that develops on the undersurface of fern fronds. The sporangia undergo meiosis ==> spores.


Kingdom Plantae: Pterophyta (includes 3 groups)


Include extinct woody trees; hollow, ribbed stems that are jointed at NODES. Strobili bear spores. Stems, branches, and leaves are green (photosynthetic) and have rough texture due to silica (SiO2).


Kingdom Plantae: Pterophyta (includes 3 groups)

- Whisk Ferns
*Secondary Loss

They are plants that consist of branching stems without roots. Leaves reduced to small appendages or absent. The absence of roots/leaves is considered a SECONDARY LOSS --that is, these structures were lost as whisk ferns diverged from their ancestors.


Kingdom Plantae: These two produces seeds (Male & Female spores)


Microsporangia produces microspores (male spores)

Macrosporangia produces the macrospores (female spores)


Kingdom Plantae: Microsporangium

-Microspore mother cell
-Pollen grains

Produces numerous MICROSPORE MOTHER CELL, which divide by meiosis to produce 4 haploid cells,called microspores. (microspores-male) => mature into POLLEN GRAINS (represent gametophyte generation) which divides into 3 cells (in flowering plants) or 4 cells (in conifers)

One is VEGETATIVE(tube) cell that controls growth of pollen tube, others = sperms.


Kingdom Plantae: Megasporangium
-Whats it called?
-Megaspore Mother Cell
- Megaspore

Its called NUCELLUS, produces a MEGASPORE MOTHER CELL==> (meiosis) 4 haploid cells, one survives to become MEGASPORE (female gametophyte generation).
MEGASPORE ==> (mitosis) one egg (in flowering plants) or two eggs (in conifers).

One/two tissue layers( INTEGUMENTS) surround megasporangium. OVULE (integument + nucellus + megaspore daughter cells)

MICROPHYLE - is opening through integuments for pollen access to egg.


Kingdom Plantae: Megasporangium

-What happens once pollen grain contacts megasporangium
-pollen tube
-seed coat

Once pollen grain contacts megasporangium, tube cell (of sperm) directs growth of POLLEN TUBE through the micropyle and toward egg ==> fertilization(zygote) ==> embryo (beginning of sporophyte gen.); integuments ==> SEED COAT.


Kingdom Plantae: Coniferophyta

-gymnosperms(naked seeds)

Are familiar conifers (literally cone-bearing). They include pines, firs, sprices, junipers, redwoods, cedars, and others.
They are pollen-bearing male + ovulebearing female cones;
GYNOSPERMS(naked seeds) are seeds produced in unprotected megaspores near surface of reproductive structure. Fertilization and seed development requires one to 3 years.


Kingdom Plantae: Anthopyta (angiosperms)

Describe the parts of the flower
2. Stamen
3. Petals

Major evolutionary advancements

Angiosperms are flowering plants. The major parts of flower:
1. Pistil: female reproductive structure(3 parts: OVARY(egg-bearing), STYLE, and STIGMA
2. Stamen: Male reproductive structure (pollen-bearing ANTHER and stalk, FILAMENT)
3. Petals: Also called SEPALS function to attract POLLINATORS.

Major evolutionary advancements: Attracts pollinators (insects +birds); ovule protected inside OVARY which develops into fruit => dispersal of seeds by wind or other animals.


Kingdom Plantae: Process of fertilization.

1. When pollen lands on sticky stigma

1. Pollen lands on sticky stigma (female). Pollen tube (elongating cell) that contains VEGETATIVE NUCLEUS grows down the style toward an ovule; TWO-SPERM CELLS inside pollen tube.


Kingdom Plantae: Process of fertilization.

2. Ovule within ovary
-Embryo sac
-Antipodal Cells
-Polar Nuclei

2. Ovule within ovary (consists of megaspore mother cell surrounded by nucellus + integuments) . Megaspore mother cell => (meiosis) 4 haploid megaspores; one survives ==> (mitosis x 3) 8 nuclei ==> 6 nuclei undergoes cytokinesis and form plasma membrane (EMBRYO SAC).

At the micropyle of embryo sac are 3 cells( eggs + 2 synergids). At other end of micropyle are 3 ANTIPODAL CELLS . In the middle are POLAR NUCLEI (2 haploid cells)


Kingdom Plantae: Process of fertilization.

3. Pollen tube (2 sperm cells) enters embryo sac through micropyle

Pollen tube (2 sperm cells) enters embryo sac through micropyle; 1 sperm cell fertilizes egg (form diploid zygote); nucleus of 2nd sperm fuses with both polar nuclei ==> triploid (3N) nucleus ==>(mitosis) ENDOSPERM( provide nutrient). DOUBLE FERTILIZATION (vegetative propagation) is fertilization of the egg and polar nuclei each by a separate sperm.


GERM LAYERS-describe
1. Ectoderm
2. Endoderm
3. Mesoderm

Germ layers are the main laters that form various tissues and organs of the body.
1.ECTODERM- Outermost layer, becomes the skin and nervous system, including the nerve cord and brain.
2. ENDODERM- innermost layer, becomes the viscera (guts) or the digestive system
3. MESODERM - middle layer, becomes the blood and bones.


-What are its common names?
-What dominant generation does it belong to? Gametophyte or Sporophyte
-Fluid Transport? (Non-vascular/Vascular)
-Sperm Transport? (Flagellated sperm/Wind-dispersed)
Dispersal Unit? (spores/seeds)

Common Names- Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

Dominant Gen. - Gametophyte

Fluid Transport- Nonvascular
Sperm Transport - Flageelated sperm
Dispersal Unit- Spores



-What are its common names?
-What dominant generation does it belong to? Gametophyte or Sporophyte
-Fluid Transport? (Non-vascular/Vascular)
-Sperm Transport? (Flagellated sperm/Wind-dispersed)
Dispersal Unit? (spores/seeds)

Common Names- Clubs mosses, spike mosses, quillworts

Dominant Gen. - sporophyte

Fluid Transport- Vascular
Sperm Transport - Flagellated sperm
Dispersal Unit- spores



-What are its common names?
-What dominant generation does it belong to? Gametophyte or Sporophyte
-Fluid Transport? (Non-vascular/Vascular)
-Sperm Transport? (Flagellated sperm/Wind-dispersed)
Dispersal Unit? (spores/seeds)

Common Names- ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns

Dominant Gen. - sporophyte

Fluid Transport- Vascular
Sperm Transport - Flagellated sperm
Dispersal Unit- Spores



-What are its common names?
-What dominant generation does it belong to? Gametophyte or Sporophyte
-Fluid Transport? (Non-vascular/Vascular)
-Sperm Transport? (Flagellated sperm/Wind-dispersed)
Dispersal Unit? (spores/seeds)

Common Names- Conifers

Dominant Gen. - Sporophyte

Fluid Transport- Vascular
Sperm Transport - Wind-dispersed pollen
Dispersal Unit- Seeds



-What are its common names?
-What dominant generation does it belong to? Gametophyte or Sporophyte
-Fluid Transport? (Non-vascular/Vascular)
-Sperm Transport? (Flagellated sperm/Wind-dispersed)
Dispersal Unit? (spores/seeds)

Common Names- Flowering plants

Dominant Gen. - Sporophyte

Fluid Transport- Vascular
Sperm Transport - Wind-dispersed
Dispersal Unit- seeds


Kingdom Animalia: What are some characteristics of it?

1. All animals are multicellular.
2. All animals are heterotrophic
3. The dominant generation in the life cycle of animals is the diploid generation.
4. Most animals are motile during at least some part of their life cycle.
5. Most animals undergo a period of embryonic development during which two or 3 layers of tissues form.


Kingdom Animalia: What is its tissue complexity like?

EUMETAZOA - functioning cells organized into tissues
Diplobasltic/triploblastic - layers of tissue (ecto, meso, endo);
Another group is PARAZOA(cells not organized into true tissues = > organs do not develop.)


Kingdom Animalia: Body Symmetry
-Radical Symmetry
-Bilateral Symmetry

RADICAL SYMMETRY - organisms have only one orientation, front and back



Kingdom Animalia: Cephalization

In animals with bilateral symmetry, there is a progressively greater increase in nerve tissue concentration at the anterior end (head) as organisms inc. in complexity.

Ex- Brains have developed w accessory sensory organs for seeing, smelling, tasting, and feeling(antennae)


*digestive tract

Gastrovascular cavities, or guts, are areas where food is digested.

-Two openings designate a DIGESTIVE TRACT, allowing specialized activities to occur as food travels from beginning to end.


Kingdom Animalia: Coelom

Derives from the mesoderm. It is a fluid-filled cavity.
ACOELOMATE - animals lack coelom.
PSEUDOCOELOMATE - animals have a cavity(not completely lined by mesoderm-derived tissue)


Kingdom Animalia: Segmentation

What organisms do they include?

Insects and certain worms.


Kingdom Animalia: Protostomes and deuterostomes

During the early development of the zygote, cell divisions, or CLEAVAGES, take place in an orderly fashion.
-Archenteron = (The primitive gut that forms during gastrulation in the developing brastula. It develops into the digestive tract of an animal.


Animal Phyla:

AMEBOCYTE- is a mobile cell in the body of invertebrates such as echinoderms, mollusks, or sponges.

PSEUDOPODIA - A temporary protrusion of the cytoplasm-actin of an amoeba, serving for locomotion or the engulfment of food.


Animal Phyla:
Porifera (parazoa) - What are they?

They are sponges - invertebrates

SESSILE - have no nerves or muscles (meaning they dont move)
-Consists of two cell layers only: Ectoderm and Endoderm
- CHOANOCYTES = flagella creates a flow of water for feed-filter.
-SPICULES = for support-Sponges are classified by the material that makes up for spicules.
AMOEBOCYTES - digesting + distribute nutrients.


Animal Phyla:
- Cnidaria - Invertebrate

Cnidarians are hyra and Jellyfish, sea anemones, corals
They are invertebrates/radial symmetry.
MEDUSA- Upside-down bowl shaped
POLYP - vase shaped.
Two layers:ectoderm and endoderm
-Has gastrovascular cavity where extracellular digestion occurs.


Animal Phyla


Platyhelminthes include Flatworms/ Tapeworms

- Has tissue/organs
- Flatworms are ACOELOMATE- they have coelom; they have a solid body with no room for true digestive or respiratory systems to circulate food molecules or oxygen.

FLUKES-are internal animal parasites/external parasites that suck tissue fluids/blood.

TAPEWORMS - are internal parasites that often live in digestive tract of vertebrates


Animal Phyla


-Pseudocoelom - transports nutrients w complete digestive tract.
- Many parasitic


Animal Phyla

- Rotifera

Multicellular with specialized organs enclosed in pseudocoelom, complete digestive tract; filter-feeder.


Animal Phyla

- Mollusca
*Calcium carbonate

These are squids, octopuses, slugs, clams, and snails
-Have bilateral symmetry.
-Open circulatory system with internal cavity called HEMOCOEL.


Animal Phyla

- Annelida

They are segmented worms: Earthworms, leeches


Animal Phyla

- Arthropoda

What are the 2 kind of cycles?

They are spiders, insects, crustaceans(shrimps,crabs) and spiders
-Jointed appendages
Two kinds of cycles: NYMPHS(small version of adult, change shape as grow proceeds)
LARVAE - are maggots specialized for eating; they reach certain size==> enclose themselves with PUPA(cocoon) to undergo METAMORPHOSIS.
Insects- 3 pairs of legs
Arachnids- 4 pairs of legs(spiders & scorpions)
Crustaceans- Crab,shrimp, lobster, crayfish.


Animal Phyla

- Echinodermata:

Sea stars (starfish) and Sea Urchins
-Deuterostome coelomates
-Completely digestive tract
-Adults have radial symmetry but are bilateral when young


Animal Phyla


They are fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
-Deuterostome Coelomates
-Have a NOTOCHORD - provides dorsal, flexible rob that functions as support; replaced by bone during development; in most vertebrates, it becomes nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc; arrived from mesoderm.

-They have a muscular tail.