Anatomy- The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

Biology > Anatomy- The Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy- The Endocrine System Deck (49):
1

Hormones

Chemical messengers released to the blood by the cells of endocrine glands that regulate metabolic activities

Hormones signal target cells to perform specific chemical reactions.

2

Endocrine glands include:

Which organs help with this?

Tissues that produce hormones from within:

Pituitary,thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal, and thymus.

Organs that help with this are: pancreas, gonads, hypothalamus.

- Tissues that produce hormones from within: adipose cells, small intestine, stomach, kidneys, heart.

3

Acid-based hormones

Contain a couple to many amino acids

Example: amines, thyroid hormone, peptides

4

Steroid Hormomes

Synthesized from cholesterol

5

Eicosanoids

Biologically active lipids released from nearly all cell membranes.

6

Mechanisms of Hormone action:

1.Activate/deactivate enzymes
2.stimulate mitosis/cell division
3.stimulates synthesis of protein within the cells.

7

Endocrine System

A system of glands scattered throughout the body that influences the metabolic activities of cells through hormones.

8

Thyroid Hormone

Binds to a DNA-associated receptor protein which turns on transcription & translation of the associated gene.

9

Negative Feedback

Thermostat

10

Humoral Stimuli

Hormone release controlled by blood levels of specific ions and nutrients

11

Neural Stimuli

Nerve fibers simulate hormone release catecholamines.

Catecholamines are epinephrine and norepinephrine.

12

Hormonal Stimuli

Other hormones release of a hormone(released by the hypothalamus)

13

Nervous System Modulation:

The nervous system can override normal homeostatic mechanisms for hormonal control

For example: allow more glucose for fuel to be released during excitement

"Fight or flight" response

14

Pituitary Gland(anterior pituitary):

Growth Hormone(GH)

Stimulates cell division in most cells.(major targets are bone & skeletal)

IGFs - insulin-like growth factors. Mediates most of the effects of GH

Hypersecretion: can lead to gigantism- long bones develop ACROMEGALY

Hyposecretion: can lead to pituitary dwarfism

15

Anterior Pituitary: 5 hormones

Name and describe

1. Prolactin(PRL) - stimulates milk production by mammary glands

2. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)- stimulates gamete production in the gonads.

3.Leutinizint hormone(LH) - testosterone, estrogen, progesterone

4. Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)

5. Adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH)- release hormones from Adriano cortex.


16

Posterior Pituitary(Neurohypophysis):

Receives and stores hormones from hypothalamus for later

17

Posterior Pituitary(Neurohypophysis): Oxytocin

Produced by the hypothalamus. Stimulates uterine contraction during childhood birth & milk ejection during nursing.

18

Posterior Pituitary(Neurohypophysis): Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH)

Produced by the hypothalamus.

Stimulates kidney tubules to retain water.

Deficiency of ADH secretion leads to diabetes

19

Hypothalamus:


List some hormones

GHRH
GHIH
PRH
PIH
TRH
CRH

20

Thyroid Gland: Thyroid Hormone

Amino acid hormones containing 2 tyrosine molecules each bound to iodine molecules. Regulates metabolic activities, especially glucose oxidation.

21

Thyroid Gland: Thyroxine (T4)-

major hormone released from thyroid molecules. ContIns 4 iodine molecules .

22

Triiodothyronine (T3):

Contains 3 iodine molecules.generally formed from T4.

23

Simple goiter:

Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine.

24

Cretinism

Underdeveloped thyroid gland. May lead to mental retardation

25

Myxedema:

Hypothyroidism in adults(weigh gain, hair loss, slow pulse

26

Graves' disease

Hyperthyroidism due to enlarged and overactive thyroid gland

-swelling of the eyes.

27

Calcitonin

Produces by para-follicular cells(C cells) of thyroid gland.

-lowers blood calcium levels

28

Parathyroid hormone(PTH) :

Praises blood calcium levels and calcium by kidneys

29

Adrenal glands(Suprarenal glands)

Pyramids shaped glands. Look like hats above the kidneys.

30

Adrenal glands: Adrenal Cortex

Releases corticosteroid hormones.

31

Mineralocorticoids:

Regulate salt in extracellular fluids.

32

Aldosterone

Primary mineralocorticoid. Enhances sodium from kidney tubules.

33

Glucocorticoids

Influence metabolism of body cells and help resist stressors.

During times of stress(injury,blood loss), glucocorticoids stimulate gluconeogenesis and mobilize fat and proteins used for energy

34

Anti-inflammatory agents

Glucocorticoids also prevent water loss from cells into tissue fluids

35

Gonadocorticoids

Source of sex hormones. Primarily androgens(testosterone) and estrogen.

May cause puberty

36

Addison's disease:

Low level of adrenal context hormones resulting in bronzing of skin, low blood sugar.

37

Cushing syndrome:

High level of adrenal cortex hormones resulting in high blood sugar, high blood sodium, swelling and obesity & and possible masculinization in women.

38

Adrenal medulla:what does it release?

Describe functions of epinephrine and norepinephrine

Releases catecholamines(norepinephrine and epinephrine)

Epinephrine: stimulates heart rate and metabolism

Norepinephrine: treats low blood pressure and heart failure.

39

Pancreas:

Releases insulin and glucagon from islets of Langerhans.

40

Insulin:

Released by beta cells of islets; lowers blood glucose levels by stimulating glucose storage

41

Insulin deficiency may lead to ________.

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(IDDM).?

Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM)?

Diabetes mellitus.

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(IDDM)- autoimmune disease where immune cells attack and destroy beta cells.

Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM)- insulin receptors do not properly resolution insulin.

42

Glucagon

Raises blood glucose levels.

Increases production of glucose in the liver.

43

Ovaries produce

Estrogens & progesterone(responsible for female reproductive organs)

44

Insulin inhibits _______.

Inhibits FSH during ovarian cycle

45

Relaxin

Released during pregnancy. Increases flexibility of pubic symphysis.

46

Testes produce:

Androgen(male sex hormone)

47

Testosterone:produced by cells if testes. Is responsible for maturation of male reproductive organs.

produced by cells if testes. Is responsible for maturation of male reproductive organs.

48

Inhibin:

Inhibits FSH to regulate spermatogenesis.

49

Pineal gland:

Secretes melatonin.

Melatonin is involved in the sleep/awake cycle.

During sleep, melatonin levels increase