Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (54):
Transfer of electrons from one atom to another
Properties of Water
2.High Heat capacity
3.High Cohesion/Surface tension - attraction to like
4.Strong Adhesion- attraction to unlike substances. (Wet finger and flip pages)
Give 2 examples
Single sugar molecule(glucose or fructose)
Give three examples and what they each contain
Two surge molecules. Sucrose(glu+fru) Lactose(glu+gal). Maltose(glu+glu)
Series of connected monosaccharides; polymer
Stored energy in plant cells
Stored energy in animal cells
Molecules for walls of plant cells and wood
Molecule in fungal cell walls(exoskeleton of insects)
Includes fats and oils
3 fatty acid chains
Contain saturated(straight chain)and unsaturated(branching)
Fatty acid that has a single covalent bond
No double bonds
2 fatty acids and a phosphate group
Hydrophilic and hydrophobic
Esters of fatty acids and monohydroxlic alcohols
Specialized fat cells whose cytoplasm contains nothing but triglycerides
Are non-proteins molecules that assist enzymes.
Nitrogen base, five carbon sugar deoxyribose
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, in all organisms.
3. All cells come from pre-existing, living cells
4. Cells carry hereditary information.
Catabolism + anabolism + energy transfer
Common source of activation energy.
Have 2 kinds of binding sites:
an active site for substrate binding and an allosteric site for binding of an allosteric effector.
Binding of the inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate. No enzyme substrate reaction takes place as a result.
Happens where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme by binding to enzyme(other than the active site) and causing it informational change in enzyme shape. This change may effect the ability of the enzyme and active site ability to transform substrate into a product.
Many toxins and antibiotics are noncompetitor inhibitors.
ability of an atom to attract electrons
Single, Double, and Triple covalent bonds:
2,4,6, electrons shared
Hydrogen bonds are:
weak bonds between molecules.
Each functional group gives the molecule a particular property, such as acidity or polarity.
Sucrose(common table sugar)
glucose + fructose
Lactose(the sugar in milk)
Glucose + glactose
Glucose + Glucose
Lipids are substances that are_______
insoluble in water.
Monounsaturated fatty acid:
One double covalent bond
two or more double covalent bonds
four linked carbon rings.
Examples include: cholesterol(component of cell membranes), and certain hormones, including testosterone and estrogen.
regulate the rate of chemical reactions.
All proteins are polymers of
The bonds between amino acids are called:
Also what is a chain of amino acids?
peptide bonds. A chain is a polypeptide.
occurs when hydrophobic R groups move toward the center of the protein( away from the water in which the protein is usually immersed)
Ways RNA is different from DNA
1. RNA molecule is ribose, not deoxyribose as in DNA
2.The thymine nucleotide does not occur in RNA. It is replaced by uracil. When pairing of the bases occurs in RNA, uracil pairs with adenine.
3. RNA is single stranded. DNA is double helix
In order for a chemical reaction to take place, reacting molecules must first collide and then have sufficient energy to trigger the formation of new bonds.
Anabolism/synthesis=formation of new products.
describes the condition where the rate of reaction in the forward direction favors the rate in the reverse direction
No net production
are globular proteins that act as as catalysts.
Characteristics of Enzymes:
1. are substrate specific
2.Efficiency is effected by temperature and pH.
3. Induced fit-model:describes how enzymes work.
are organic cofactors that donate or accept some component of a reaction; often electrons.
Inorganic cofactors are:
metal ions, like Fe2+ and Mg2+
binds to an enzyme and induces the enzymes ACTIVE form