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Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (54):
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Ionic bonds

Transfer of electrons from one atom to another

1

Properties of Water

1.Excellent Solvent
2.High Heat capacity
3.High Cohesion/Surface tension - attraction to like
4.Strong Adhesion- attraction to unlike substances. (Wet finger and flip pages)

2

Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides

Give 2 examples

Single sugar molecule(glucose or fructose)

3

Carbohydrates: disaccharide
Give three examples and what they each contain

Two surge molecules. Sucrose(glu+fru) Lactose(glu+gal). Maltose(glu+glu)

4

Carbohydrates:Polysaccharides

Series of connected monosaccharides; polymer

5

Starch

Stored energy in plant cells

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Glycogen

Stored energy in animal cells

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Cellulose

Molecules for walls of plant cells and wood

8

Chitin

Molecule in fungal cell walls(exoskeleton of insects)

10

Triglycerides contains:

Includes fats and oils

3 fatty acid chains

Contain saturated(straight chain)and unsaturated(branching)

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Unsaturated

Double bonds

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Saturated

Fatty acid that has a single covalent bond

No double bonds

12

Phospholipid contains:

2 fatty acids and a phosphate group

13

Amphipathic

Hydrophilic and hydrophobic

14

Waxes

Esters of fatty acids and monohydroxlic alcohols

15

Adipocytes

Specialized fat cells whose cytoplasm contains nothing but triglycerides

16

Cofactors

Are non-proteins molecules that assist enzymes.

17

Nucleotide contains:

Nitrogen base, five carbon sugar deoxyribose

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Purines

Adenine, guanine

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Pyrimidines

Thymine, cytosine

20

Cell theory

1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells

2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, in all organisms.

3. All cells come from pre-existing, living cells

4. Cells carry hereditary information.

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Metabolism

Catabolism + anabolism + energy transfer

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ATP

Common source of activation energy.

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Allosteric Enzymes

Have 2 kinds of binding sites:

an active site for substrate binding and an allosteric site for binding of an allosteric effector.

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Competitive inhibition

Binding of the inhibitor to the active site of the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate. No enzyme substrate reaction takes place as a result.

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Non-competitive inhibition

Happens where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme by binding to enzyme(other than the active site) and causing it informational change in enzyme shape. This change may effect the ability of the enzyme and active site ability to transform substrate into a product.

Many toxins and antibiotics are noncompetitor inhibitors.

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Covalent bonds

Shared electrons

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Electronegativity

ability of an atom to attract electrons

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Non-polar electrons

Share equally

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Polar electrons

shared unequally

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Single, Double, and Triple covalent bonds:

2,4,6, electrons shared

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Hydrogen bonds are:

weak bonds between molecules.

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Functional groups

Each functional group gives the molecule a particular property, such as acidity or polarity.

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Sucrose(common table sugar)

glucose + fructose

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Lactose(the sugar in milk)

Glucose + glactose

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Maltose

Glucose + Glucose

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Lipids are substances that are_______

insoluble in water.

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Monounsaturated fatty acid:

One double covalent bond

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Polyunsaturated:

two or more double covalent bonds

40

Steroids:

four linked carbon rings.

Examples include: cholesterol(component of cell membranes), and certain hormones, including testosterone and estrogen.

41

ProteinsL Enzymes

regulate the rate of chemical reactions.

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All proteins are polymers of

amino acids

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The bonds between amino acids are called:

Also what is a chain of amino acids?

peptide bonds. A chain is a polypeptide.

44

Hydrophobic Effect:

occurs when hydrophobic R groups move toward the center of the protein( away from the water in which the protein is usually immersed)

45

Ways RNA is different from DNA

1. RNA molecule is ribose, not deoxyribose as in DNA
2.The thymine nucleotide does not occur in RNA. It is replaced by uracil. When pairing of the bases occurs in RNA, uracil pairs with adenine.
3. RNA is single stranded. DNA is double helix

46

Activation energy

In order for a chemical reaction to take place, reacting molecules must first collide and then have sufficient energy to trigger the formation of new bonds.

47

Metabolism includes:

Catabolism=breakdown
Anabolism/synthesis=formation of new products.

48

Equilibrium:

describes the condition where the rate of reaction in the forward direction favors the rate in the reverse direction

No net production

49

Enzymes:

are globular proteins that act as as catalysts.

50

Characteristics of Enzymes:

1. are substrate specific
2.Efficiency is effected by temperature and pH.
3. Induced fit-model:describes how enzymes work.

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Coenzymes:

are organic cofactors that donate or accept some component of a reaction; often electrons.

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Inorganic cofactors are:

metal ions, like Fe2+ and Mg2+

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Allosteric activator

binds to an enzyme and induces the enzymes ACTIVE form

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Allosteric inhibitor

binds to the enzyme and induces the enzymes INACTIVE form