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Flashcards in Animal Behavior Deck (26):
1

Genetic Basis of Behavior:

*Behavioral Ecology

Can be inherited through genes(innate-molded by natural selection-increase fitness) or learned. BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY - is the study of behavior that seeks to explain how specific behaviors increase fitness.

2

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

-Simple and Complex Reflexes-
*Simple-
*Complex-

Simple- automatic 2 nerve (afferent/efferent) response to stimulus controlled @ spinal cord (lower animals)

Complex - automatic response to significant stimulus(controlled @ brains stem or even cerebru,)
EX- STARTLE RESPONSE - Controlled by the RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM

3

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

-Instinct =

Behavior that is innate, or inherited.

Ex- In mammals, care for offspring by female parents.

4

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

-Fixed action patterns (FAP)

-Fixed action patterns (FAP): innate behaviors following a regular, unvarying pattern. Initiated by a specific stimulus called SIGN STIMULI(releaser when between members of same species), and completed even if original intent of behavior cannot be fulfilled
Ex- Goose methodically rolling egg back to nest even if it slips away or is removed.
Ex- Male stickleback fish defending territory against any object with red underside.
Ex - Swimming actions of fish/flying actions of locusts.`

5

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

-Imprinting
*Critical period

Imprinting - innate program for acquiring specific behavior only if appropriate stimulus is experienced during CRITICAL PERIOD. Once acquired, trait is irreversible
Ex- Gay goslings accepting any moving object as mother during first day of life.
Ex- Salmon hatch in freshwater, migrate to ocean to feed, return to birthplace to breed based on imprinted odors associated w/ birthplace.

6

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

*Associative Learning
-Classical conditioning
- Unconditioned stimulus
- Unconditioned response
-Conditioned Stimulus
- Conditioned Reflex

Associative Learning - Occurs when animal recognizes (learn) that events are connected. A form called CLASSICAL CONDITIONING occurs when animal performs behavior in response to substitute stimulus rather than normal stimulus
i. Ex: Dogs salivate when presented with food. PAVLOV bell ringing prior to food, could stimulate salivation with bell alone.
ii. Established innate reflex is UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (food causing salivation), natural response to that is the UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (salivation).
iii. Association of bell with with food leads it to becoming CONDITIONED STIMULUS that will elicit response even in absence of the unconditioned stimulus. Product of this conditioning experience is called the CONDITIONED REFLEX (salivation)

7

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
*Associative Learning
-Trial-and-error learning(operant conditioning)

Another form of associative learning that occurs when animal connects its own behavior with environmental response, REWARD. If response is desirable(positive reinforcement), animal will repeat behavior. If negative/undesirable(painful e.g. punishment), animal avoids behavior (positive reinforcement = add something good to increase behavior; negative reinforcement = take away something bad to increase a behavior vs. positive punishment = add something bad to decrease behavior; negative punishment = take away something good to decrease behavior)

i. Learned behavior can be reversed in absence of reinforcement behavior; behavior no longer elicits the response (EXTINCTION)
ii. Recovery of conditioned response to conditioned stimulus after delay following extinction = SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY

8

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
*Associative Learning

-SPATIAL LEARNING

- Another form of associative learning. Animal associates attributes of landmark with reward of identifying and returning to that location.
EX: Wasps able to associate pinecones with location of nest(lost upon removal).

9

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

-HABITUATION
*Spontaneous Recovery

HABITUATION - learned behavior that allows animal to disregard meaningless stimuli.
a. Sea anemones disregarding repeated "feeding" stimulation with a stick.
b. If stimulus no longer regularly applies, response will recover over time - SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY

10

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

-Observational Learning

Observational Learning- Animal copies behavior of another without having experienced any feedback themselves
EX- All monkeys followed lead of first by washing off potato in water.

11

KINDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

-Insight

When animal exposed to new situation w/out prior exp., performs a behavior that generates (+) outcome
a) Chimpanzee stacks boxes to reach bananas previously out of reach.

12

Animal Movement(3 kinds)

1. Kinesis

Kinesis is an UNDIRECTED(without direction) change in speed of an animal's movement in response to a stimulus; slow down in favorable environment and speed up in unfavorable environment.
Ex- Animals scurrying when rock is lifted up.

13

Animal Movement(3 kinds)

2. Taxis
-photoaxis

Taxis is a DIRECTED movement in response to a stimulus. Movement is either toward/away from stimulus. PHOTOAXIS is the movement toward light.
Ex- moths moving toward light, sharks moving toward food odors.

14

Animal Movement(3 kinds)

3. Migration

Long-distance, seasonal movement of animals. Usually in response to availability of food/degradation of environmental conditions:
EX- migration by whales, birds, elk, insects. and bats to warmer climates.

15

Communication in Animals

Chemicals-
*Pheremones. *Releaser pheromones. *Primer pheromones.

Chemicals - chemicals used for communication are PHEROMONES. Chemicals that trigger reversible behavioral changes are called RELEASER PHEROMONES; those that cause long term physiological (and behavioral) changes are called PRIMER PHEROMONES. Pheromones may be smelled or eaten.
a.) EX - Doe in heat--- releaser pheromones
b) EX- Queen bees and aunts secrete primer pheromones to prevent development of reproductive capability.

16

Communication in Animals

-Visual
Understand 2 examples

Visual - during displays of aggression(agonistic behavior) or during courtship.
EX - Aggression - wolves baring teeth/submission - laying on back.
EX - Males sage grouse assemble into groups (LEKS) to perform courtship dance.

17

Communication in Animals

-Auditory - an example

Auditory
EX - Whale sound, elephant infrasound, frog calls, and songs of male birds.

18

Communication in Animals

- Tactile - Example

Tactile -
EX- Common in social bonding, infant care, grooming, and mating.

19

Foraging Behavior : what is it
1.Herds, flocks, schools
*Concealment
* Vigilance
*Defense

FORAGING BEHAVIOR : Optimize feeding( minimize energy spent and risk)
1. Herds, flocks, schools: Several advantages, uses cooperation (carry out a behavior more successfully as a group)
*Concealment: Most individ. in flock are hidden from view.
*Vigilance: In a group, individuals can trade off foraging and watching for predators.
* Defense: A group of individ. can shield their young or mob their predator.

20

Foraging Behavior
*Packs

Foraging Behavior :Optimize feeding( minimize energy spent and risk)

Packs: enable members to corner and successfully attack large prey.

21

Foraging Behavior
*Search Images

Foraging Behavior :Optimize feeding( minimize energy spent and risk)

Search images: help animals find favored or plentiful food based on specific and/or abbreviated target "image"
EX - spotting a police car(black * white imagge). book on shelf (color and shape w/out reading title)

22

Social Behavior
1. Herds, Flocks, and schools
a) what benefit do they provide?

2. Packs
a)What is it?
3.) Search Images
a)what is it?

Social Behavior
1. Herds, Flocks, and schools
a) Provide benefit of CONCEALMENT, VIGILANCE, and DEFENSE

2. Packs
a) Allow members to corner and attack large prey.
3.) Search Images
a) Help animals find favored or plentiful food.
EX - Black & white search image = police car for humans.

23

Social Behavior

-Agonistic Behavior

Agonistic Behavior - (aggression and submission) Ex:dog wagging his/her tail.

a)originates from competition from food, mates, or territory.
b) Agnostic behavior is ritualized, so injuries and time spent in contests are minimized.

24

Social Behavior

-Dominance hierarchies:explain
-pecking order

Dominance hierarchies: indicate power & status relationship in a group: minimize fighting for food/mates

PECKING ORDER - linear order of status used to describe dominance hierarchy in chickens.

25

Social Behavior

-Territoriality-

Territoriality - active possession and defense of territory- ensures adequate food/place to mate.

26

Social Behavior

-Altruistic behavior:
*Inclusive fitness
*Kin selection
* Haploidiploid

Altruistic behavior: seemingly unselfish behavior that appears to reduce fitness of individual - when an animal risks its safety in defense of another/in order to help another individual rear its young

a. Actually increases INCLUSIVE FITNESS(fitness of individual plus relatives[who share some identical genes])
b. KIN SELECTION - natural selection that increases inclusive fitness
EX - squirrels alarm when predator comes ---> risky to self but save daughters, mothers, sisters, and aunts ----> kin selection.
c. EX = HAPLODIPLOID reproductive system of bees - males are haploid)unfertilized egg of queen) and female workers and queen are diploid (fertilized eggs). Inclusive fitness of female workers is greater if she promotes production of sisters.