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Channel proteins

Channel proteins are trans-membrane proteins found in the phospholipid bilayer membranes in our bodies. These channel proteins are SPECIFIC and allow certain molecules/ions (eg. Na+) to pass through, thus crossing the membrane.

Goes through a pore into or out of the cell.

1

Recognition Proteins

Distinguishes foreign cells from "self" cells

2

Carrier Proteins(type of transport protein):

Involved in what type of transport?
Uses what type of diffusion?
Function?

Involved in facilitated diffusion and active transport Which transport substances in/out of the cell.

Involved in the movement of ions, molecules, proteins across the lipid bilayer

Transports salts, glucose, amino acids.

3

Porins

and Aquaporins

Allow passage of certain ions + small polar molecules through the membrane.

Aquaporins increase rate of H20 passing(kidney & plant).

4

Transport Proteins

What do they use?

Can use ATP to transport materials across.

5

Adhesion proteins

provide anchors for internal filaments and tubules.

6

Active Transport:

Which direction is the concentration gradient?
Which molecules are passed?

Na+ and K- pump to maintain gradients using ATP. Facilitated diffusion as well.

7

Cholesterol:

Function?
What similar function is found in plant cells?
Do prokaryotes have this?

Major component of the cell membrane.
Helps to "pack" phospholipids in the membranes, thus, giving them more rigidity to membrane.

STEROLS provide similar function in plant cells.

Prokaryotes DO NOT HAVE cholesterol in their membranes.

8

Receptor Proteins:

Which 3 places is it located in?
Function?
Binding site for.....?

Located in cytoplasm, cell membrane, and nuclear membrane.

Provides binding sites for hormones or other trigger molecules. In response to the hormone or trigger molecule, a specific cell response is activated.

9

Glycocalyx:

Location?
Consists of?
Function?

A carbohydrate coat that covers the outer face of the cell wall of some bacteria and outer face of plasma membrane.

It consists of glycolipids(attached to plasma membrane) and glycoproteins (such as recognition proteins)

It may also provide a barrier to infection, or markers for cell-cell recognition.

10

Organelles: Nucleus (know 6 characteristics)

Chromosomes?
Chromatin?
Histones?
Nucleolus?
Nucleus is bound by a _______ ________ layer

1.CHROMATIN is when the DNA is not condensed.

2.CHROMOSOMES is condensed chromatin when the cell is ready to divide.

3.HISTONES serve to organize DNA which coil around into bundle NUCLEOSOMES(8 histones),

4.NUCLEOLUS inside the nucleus are the marker of ribosomes(rRNA)

5.Nucleus bound by double layer nuclear envelope with nuclear pores for transport.

11

Nuclear Lamina

Inside nucleus of eukaryotic cells..

Provides mechanical support, also helps regulate DNA replication, cell division , chromatin organization.

12

Nucleoid:

What does it contain?

Irregular shaped region within the cell of prokaryote that contains all/most generic material.

13

Ribosomes

Made of RNA + protein

60S + 40S = 80S

14

Cytoplasm

consists of organelles suspended in a fluid matrix.

15

ER( smooth and rough)

Rough- has ribosomes. Creates proteins.

Smooth- no ribosomes. Creates lipids and steroid hormones. Breaks down toxins, drugs.

16

Lysosomes:

Function?
Functions in.....?

Vesicles produced from Golgi that contain digestive enzymes.

Functions in apoptosis(releases content into cells)

18

Golgi apparatus

Transports various substances in vesicles.

Has flatten sacs known as cisternae.

18

Microtubles:

Composed of?
Function?
Located?

Made of the protein tublin.

Guide chromosomes during division.

Are in flagella and cilia.

In all animal cells and lower plantz(mosses,ferns)

19

Intermediate filaments

Provide support for maintain cell shape.

20

Peroxisomes:

Function?
Location?
What is produced?

What are they called in germinating seeds?

Breaks down substances, fatty acid, and amino acid.

Located in cytoplasm

Common in liver/kidney where they break down toxic substances.

Produce h2o2 which they use to oxidize substances.

In germinating seeds, peroxisomes are called GLYOXYSOSOMES. They break down stored fatty acids to help generate energy for growth.

21

Microtubles organizing centers (MTOC)

What two functions does it have?
Which two things does this include?

Do plant cells have this?

Has two main functions: the organization of eukaryotic flagella and cilia and the organization of the mitotic and meiotic spindle apparatus, which separate the chromosomes during cell division.

Include CENTRIOLES and BASAL BODIES.

Plant cells lack centrioles because it's division is by the cell plate instead of cleavage furrow - plant cells DO have MTOC'S.

22

Microfilment:

Composed of?
Function?
Located in_____ which is found in______.

Made up of ACTIN and are the thinnest of filaments
involved in cell motility(the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process)

Are part of cytoskeleton which is found in the cytoplasm.

(skeletal muscle, amoeba pseudopod, cleavage furrow)

23

Transport vacuoles

Moves materials between organelles and the plasma membrane.

24

Food vacuoles

Merge with lysosomes which break down food.

25

Central Vacuoles

Large; occupy most of plant cell interior.

26

Storage Vacuoles

Plants store starch, pigments, pans toxic substances.

27

Contractile Vacuoles:

What is it?
Where is it found in?

In single-celled organisms that collect and pump excess water out of the cells(prevent bursting)

Found in Protista like amoeba and parmecia, organisms live in an hypotonic environment.

28

Cell Walls *know the names of the cell walls for plants, fungi, bacteria, Archea*

Found in plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria. Provides support. Sometimes a secondary cell wall develops beneath the primary.

Cellulose= plants

Chitlin= fungi

Peptitoglycans = in bacteria

Polysaccharides= Archea

29

Extracellular Matrix

Collection of molecules secreted by cells that provide structural and biochemical support for cells

Found in animals, in area between adjacent cells(beyond plasma membrane and glycolax).

30

Plastids:

Where is it found in?
Function?
What do they include?

Found in plant cells.

Double membranes "sac-like" cells organelles that are involved in either the manufacture or storage of food

They include: Chloroplasts(site of photosynthesis), leucoplasts (store starch), chromoplasts(store carotenoids)

31

Mitochondria

Make ATP.

Also have circular DNA and ribosomes(gives rise to the endosymbiotic theory!)

Have a Double layered membrane.

32

Cytoskeleton

What is it composed of?
Function in Eukaryotic cells?

Composed of: Microtubules(flagella cilia p), Micro filaments and intermediate filaments.

In eukaryotic cells, aids in cell division, and the movement of cytoplasm and organelles.

33

Hypotonic, Hypertonic, Isotonic

Hypotonic solution - vacuole swells --> becomes turgid

Isotonic Solution - plant cell is flaccid.

Hypertonic Solution - vacuole shrinks---> cell is plasmolyzed. Cytoplasm is pulled away from the cell wall.

When animal cells burst(cytolysis).

34

Endomembrane system

A network of organelles and structures.

Includes plasm membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nuclear envelope, lysosomes, vacuoles, vesicles, endosomes

But NOT the mitochondria or chloroplasts.

35

Intracellular Circulation

Intracellular circulation is the movement and transport of nutrients, etc. in, out INSIDE the cell.

Browniam Movement - particles move due to kinetic energy, spreads small suspended particles throughout

Cyclosis/streaming- circular motion of cytoplasm around transport molecules.

36

Extracellular Circulation

is the movement and transport of nutrients, etc. in, out OUTSIDE the cell

38

Anchoring Junctions:

(DESOSOME)

Are protein attachments between adjacent animal cells.

DESMOSOME providing mechanical support

39

Tight Junctions

Tightly stitched seams between animal cells.

This prevents the passage of materials between the cells.



39

Plasmodesmata

Narrow tunnels between plant cells.

40

Gap Junctions

Narrow tunnels between animal cells that consists of CONNEXINS.

The proteins prevent the cytoplasms of each cell from mixing, but allow passage of ions and small molecules.

They play a critical role in heart and smooth muscles.

41

Cell Junctions

serves to anchor cells to one another or to provide a passageway for cellular exchange.

42

Prokaryotes:

What does it have?

Have a plasma membrane, DNA molecule, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and a cell wall.

43

Eukaryotes

Includes all organisms except for bacteria, Cyanobacteria, and archaebacteria.

44

Prokaryotes

1. No Nucleus
2. Singular (circular) naked DNA
3. Prokaryote(50S+30Sv= 70S)
4.Cell Walls(Peptitoglycan), Archea (polysaccharides), plants (cellulose) and fungi (chitlin)

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Hypertonic

Higher solute concentration

46

Hypotonic

Lower solute concentration

47

Isotonic

Equal Solute

48

Plasmolysis

"Cell shrinkage"

the process in which cells lose water in a hypertonic solution.

49

Passive Transport

Describes the movement of substances from an area of high to low concentration.

Simple diffusion, osmosis, dialysis, plasmolysis, facilitated diffusion.

50

Active Transport

Movement of transports against their concentration gradients requiring energy. Usually like small ions, amino acids, monosaccharides.

51

Endocytosis

Cells absorb molecules by engulfing them.

Uses ATP (active process)

53

Phagocytosis

"cellular eating" occurs when undissolved material enter the cell. It engulfs it.

54

Pinocytosis

"Cell drinking" occurs when Dissolved material (liquid). Plasma membrane invaginstes.(be turned inside out)

55

Cell

The basic unit for all living things.

56

Cytosol

Consists of water and dissolved substances such as proteins and nutrients.

57

Plasma Mebrane

separates internal metabolic events from the external environment and controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell.

58

Peripheral Proteins

Proteins may attach loosely to the inner or outer surface of the membrane.

59

Integral Proteins

Proteins that extend into the membrane.

60

Communicating junctions

Are passageways between cells that allow the transfer of chemical or electrical signals.

There are two kinds of communicating junctions: Gap junctions and Plasmodesmata.

61

Simple diffusion, or diffusion

the net movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to low.

62

Osmosis

diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane.

63

Facilitated diffusion

The diffusion of solutes or water through channel proteins in the plasma membrane.

Uses ATP to do this