Flashcards in Cells Deck (63):
Channel proteins are trans-membrane proteins found in the phospholipid bilayer membranes in our bodies. These channel proteins are SPECIFIC and allow certain molecules/ions (eg. Na+) to pass through, thus crossing the membrane.
Goes through a pore into or out of the cell.
Distinguishes foreign cells from "self" cells
Carrier Proteins(type of transport protein):
Involved in what type of transport?
Uses what type of diffusion?
Involved in facilitated diffusion and active transport Which transport substances in/out of the cell.
Involved in the movement of ions, molecules, proteins across the lipid bilayer
Transports salts, glucose, amino acids.
Allow passage of certain ions + small polar molecules through the membrane.
Aquaporins increase rate of H20 passing(kidney & plant).
What do they use?
Can use ATP to transport materials across.
provide anchors for internal filaments and tubules.
Which direction is the concentration gradient?
Which molecules are passed?
Na+ and K- pump to maintain gradients using ATP. Facilitated diffusion as well.
What similar function is found in plant cells?
Do prokaryotes have this?
Major component of the cell membrane.
Helps to "pack" phospholipids in the membranes, thus, giving them more rigidity to membrane.
STEROLS provide similar function in plant cells.
Prokaryotes DO NOT HAVE cholesterol in their membranes.
Which 3 places is it located in?
Binding site for.....?
Located in cytoplasm, cell membrane, and nuclear membrane.
Provides binding sites for hormones or other trigger molecules. In response to the hormone or trigger molecule, a specific cell response is activated.
A carbohydrate coat that covers the outer face of the cell wall of some bacteria and outer face of plasma membrane.
It consists of glycolipids(attached to plasma membrane) and glycoproteins (such as recognition proteins)
It may also provide a barrier to infection, or markers for cell-cell recognition.
Organelles: Nucleus (know 6 characteristics)
Nucleus is bound by a _______ ________ layer
1.CHROMATIN is when the DNA is not condensed.
2.CHROMOSOMES is condensed chromatin when the cell is ready to divide.
3.HISTONES serve to organize DNA which coil around into bundle NUCLEOSOMES(8 histones),
4.NUCLEOLUS inside the nucleus are the marker of ribosomes(rRNA)
5.Nucleus bound by double layer nuclear envelope with nuclear pores for transport.
Inside nucleus of eukaryotic cells..
Provides mechanical support, also helps regulate DNA replication, cell division , chromatin organization.
What does it contain?
Irregular shaped region within the cell of prokaryote that contains all/most generic material.
Made of RNA + protein
60S + 40S = 80S
consists of organelles suspended in a fluid matrix.
ER( smooth and rough)
Rough- has ribosomes. Creates proteins.
Smooth- no ribosomes. Creates lipids and steroid hormones. Breaks down toxins, drugs.
Vesicles produced from Golgi that contain digestive enzymes.
Functions in apoptosis(releases content into cells)
Transports various substances in vesicles.
Has flatten sacs known as cisternae.
Made of the protein tublin.
Guide chromosomes during division.
Are in flagella and cilia.
In all animal cells and lower plantz(mosses,ferns)
Provide support for maintain cell shape.
What is produced?
What are they called in germinating seeds?
Breaks down substances, fatty acid, and amino acid.
Located in cytoplasm
Common in liver/kidney where they break down toxic substances.
Produce h2o2 which they use to oxidize substances.
In germinating seeds, peroxisomes are called GLYOXYSOSOMES. They break down stored fatty acids to help generate energy for growth.
Microtubles organizing centers (MTOC)
What two functions does it have?
Which two things does this include?
Do plant cells have this?
Has two main functions: the organization of eukaryotic flagella and cilia and the organization of the mitotic and meiotic spindle apparatus, which separate the chromosomes during cell division.
Include CENTRIOLES and BASAL BODIES.
Plant cells lack centrioles because it's division is by the cell plate instead of cleavage furrow - plant cells DO have MTOC'S.
Located in_____ which is found in______.
Made up of ACTIN and are the thinnest of filaments
involved in cell motility(the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process)
Are part of cytoskeleton which is found in the cytoplasm.
(skeletal muscle, amoeba pseudopod, cleavage furrow)
Moves materials between organelles and the plasma membrane.
Merge with lysosomes which break down food.
Large; occupy most of plant cell interior.
Plants store starch, pigments, pans toxic substances.
What is it?
Where is it found in?
In single-celled organisms that collect and pump excess water out of the cells(prevent bursting)
Found in Protista like amoeba and parmecia, organisms live in an hypotonic environment.
Cell Walls *know the names of the cell walls for plants, fungi, bacteria, Archea*
Found in plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria. Provides support. Sometimes a secondary cell wall develops beneath the primary.
Peptitoglycans = in bacteria
Collection of molecules secreted by cells that provide structural and biochemical support for cells
Found in animals, in area between adjacent cells(beyond plasma membrane and glycolax).
Where is it found in?
What do they include?
Found in plant cells.
Double membranes "sac-like" cells organelles that are involved in either the manufacture or storage of food
They include: Chloroplasts(site of photosynthesis), leucoplasts (store starch), chromoplasts(store carotenoids)
Also have circular DNA and ribosomes(gives rise to the endosymbiotic theory!)
Have a Double layered membrane.
What is it composed of?
Function in Eukaryotic cells?
Composed of: Microtubules(flagella cilia p), Micro filaments and intermediate filaments.
In eukaryotic cells, aids in cell division, and the movement of cytoplasm and organelles.
Hypotonic, Hypertonic, Isotonic
Hypotonic solution - vacuole swells --> becomes turgid
Isotonic Solution - plant cell is flaccid.
Hypertonic Solution - vacuole shrinks---> cell is plasmolyzed. Cytoplasm is pulled away from the cell wall.
When animal cells burst(cytolysis).
A network of organelles and structures.
Includes plasm membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, nuclear envelope, lysosomes, vacuoles, vesicles, endosomes
But NOT the mitochondria or chloroplasts.
Intracellular circulation is the movement and transport of nutrients, etc. in, out INSIDE the cell.
Browniam Movement - particles move due to kinetic energy, spreads small suspended particles throughout
Cyclosis/streaming- circular motion of cytoplasm around transport molecules.
is the movement and transport of nutrients, etc. in, out OUTSIDE the cell
Are protein attachments between adjacent animal cells.
DESMOSOME providing mechanical support
Tightly stitched seams between animal cells.
This prevents the passage of materials between the cells.
Narrow tunnels between plant cells.
Narrow tunnels between animal cells that consists of CONNEXINS.
The proteins prevent the cytoplasms of each cell from mixing, but allow passage of ions and small molecules.
They play a critical role in heart and smooth muscles.
serves to anchor cells to one another or to provide a passageway for cellular exchange.
What does it have?
Have a plasma membrane, DNA molecule, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and a cell wall.
Includes all organisms except for bacteria, Cyanobacteria, and archaebacteria.
1. No Nucleus
2. Singular (circular) naked DNA
3. Prokaryote(50S+30Sv= 70S)
4.Cell Walls(Peptitoglycan), Archea (polysaccharides), plants (cellulose) and fungi (chitlin)
Higher solute concentration
Lower solute concentration
the process in which cells lose water in a hypertonic solution.
Describes the movement of substances from an area of high to low concentration.
Simple diffusion, osmosis, dialysis, plasmolysis, facilitated diffusion.
Movement of transports against their concentration gradients requiring energy. Usually like small ions, amino acids, monosaccharides.
Cells absorb molecules by engulfing them.
Uses ATP (active process)
"cellular eating" occurs when undissolved material enter the cell. It engulfs it.
"Cell drinking" occurs when Dissolved material (liquid). Plasma membrane invaginstes.(be turned inside out)
The basic unit for all living things.
Consists of water and dissolved substances such as proteins and nutrients.
separates internal metabolic events from the external environment and controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell.
Proteins may attach loosely to the inner or outer surface of the membrane.
Proteins that extend into the membrane.
Are passageways between cells that allow the transfer of chemical or electrical signals.
There are two kinds of communicating junctions: Gap junctions and Plasmodesmata.
Simple diffusion, or diffusion
the net movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to low.
diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane.