Animal Form and Function- [Muscular System, Immune, Integumentary, Skeletal] Flashcards Preview

Biology > Animal Form and Function- [Muscular System, Immune, Integumentary, Skeletal] > Flashcards

Flashcards in Animal Form and Function- [Muscular System, Immune, Integumentary, Skeletal] Deck (52):
1

The Muscle System

-Muscle Fibers

A skeletal muscle consists of numerous muscle cells called MUSCLE FIBERS.

2

The Muscle System
*Ligaments
*Tendons
*Origin
*Insertion
*Extension
*Flexion

*Ligaments - bone to bone connectors, strengthen joints
*Tendons - muscle-to-bone, bend skeleton at moveable joints
*Origin = point of attachment of muscle to stationary bone.
*Insertion = point of attachment of muscle to bone that moves.
*Extension = Straightening of joint
*Flexion = bending of joint

3

The Muscle System
3 types of joints

1.Fibrous - define and give an example
2. Cartilaginous - define and give an example
3. Synovial - define and give an example

1. Fibrous = connect bones w/o allowing any movement
Ex = skull, pelvis, spinous process and vertebrae)

2. Cartilaginous = bones attached by cartilage, allow little movement
Ex = spine & ribs

3. Synovial = allow for much more movement; most common; filled with synovial fluid which acts as a lubricant
EX = carpals, wrist, elbow, knee joint.

4

The Muscular System

Skeletal muscle(striated muscle)- multi or uni? voluntary or involuntary?

-Myofibrils
-Sacromeres
-Sarcoplasmic reticulum
-Sarcoplasm
-Sarcolemma
* Action Potential
*T-tubules
-Mitochondria

Skeletal muscle(striated muscle) - voluntary movement, fibers are MULTINUCLEATED cells.

MYOFIBRILS= Composed of thin and thick filaments.

-Sacromeres= Individual contractile units separated by a border (Z-line)

-Sarcoplasmic reticulum = Stores Ca2+l surrounds myofibrils

-Sarcoplasm= cytoplasm

-Sarcolemma = Plasma membrane of muscle cells ; can propagate ACTION POTENTIAL
I) invaginated by T-TUBULES - channels for ion flow.
II) Wraps several myofibrils together to form a muscle cell/muscle fiber.
-Mitochondria = Present in large amounts in myofibrils

5

Sarcomere is composed of ____ and ____

Is composed of thin filaments (ACTIN) and thick filaments (MYOSIN)

6

The Muscle System
Sacromere
*Z lines
* M line
*I band
* H zone
*A band

*Z lines= zig zag
* M line= middle
*I band = Region containing thin filaments(actin) only
* H zone = Contains thick filaments(myosin) only.
*A band = Carries H zone and I band. Actin and myosin overlapping

7

The Muscle System

What are 3 kinds of muscles?

Skeletal Muscle

Smooth Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

8

The Immune System

Skin and Mucous membranes

Provides a nonspecific first line of defense against invaders entering through the skin or through openings into the body.

9

The Immune System

-Antimicrobial proteins:where is it found?

(such as lysozyme, which breaks down the cell walls of bacteria) are contained in saliva, tears.

10

The Immune System

-Cilia
-Gastric Juice

-Cilia = Lines the lungs served to sweep invaders out.

-Gastric Juice = Stomach kills most microbes.

11

The Immune System

-Symbiotic bacteria: Where is it found?

Found in Digestive tract and vagina outcompetes many other many other organisms. that could cause damage.

12

The Immune System

Types of WBCs
- Phagocytes
*Neutrophills
* Monocytes

- Macrophages

Phagocytes - are white blood cells(leukocytes) that engulf pathogens by phagocytosis.

They include NEUTROPHILLS and MONOCYTES.

Macrophages = Monocytes enlarge into large phagocytic cells.

13

The Immune System: 2nd line of defense
-Interferons

Secreted by cells invaded invaded by viruses/pathogens that stimulate neighboring cells to produce proteins defend against virus.

14

The Muscular System

Types of Muscle Response:
*Simple Twitch
1. Laten Period
2. Contraction
3. Relaxation

Simple Twitch = Response of a single muscle fiber to brief stimulus;

1. Laten Period= Time btw stimulation and onset of contraction, relax

2. Contraction

3. Relaxation= unresponsive to the stimulus.

15

The Muscular System

Types of Muscle Response:
-Summation
-Tetanus

-Summation = contractions combine & become stronger and more prolonged.

Tetanus = Continuous sustained contractionl muscle cannot relax. Will release if maintained

16

The Muscular System

Types of Muscle Response:
-Tonus

Tonus = State of partial contraction; muscle never completely relaxed.

17

The Muscular System

-Smooth Muscle
-Vol or invol?
- What does it lack?
- Which NS system is it stimulated by?
- Give example of Smooth Muscle

Involuntaril, ONE central nucleus, LACKS striation; stimulate by the AUTONOMIC nervous system.
Ex- lining of bladder, blood vessel walls_

18

The Muscular System

- What are two types of smooth muscle?

Single- Unit(visceral)= visceral, has gap junctions, contracts as a single unit (stomach, uterus, urinary bladder)

MULTI UNIT - Attached to the neuron contracts independently(iris,)

19

The Muscular System

Cardiac Muscle
-striated or non-striated?
- # of central nuclei?
- mitochondria

- Striated appearance (sarcomeres)

- One or TWO central nucleil

-Lots of mitochondria

20

The Muscular System

Both smooth and cardiac muscle are ______.
State and describe.

Both smooth and cardiac muscle are MYSOGENIC

MYSOGENIC = capable of contracting without stimuli from nerve cells.

21

The Muscular System

Movement in lower forms:
Unicellular Locomotion
*Protozoans & primitive algae.
* Amoeba

*Protozoans & primitive algae= Cilia or flagella by means of POWER STROKE an RECOVERY STROKE

* Amoeba =extend PSEUDOPODIAl advancing cell membrane extends forward.

22

The Muscular System

Movement in lower forms:

- Invertebrate Locomotion
*Hydrostatic Skeleton
**Flatworms-logitudinal & circular, contract against hydrostatic skeleton.
** Segmented Worms (Annelids)

*Hydrostatic Skeleton
**FLATWORMS -longitudinal & circular, contract against hydrostatic skeleton. Contraction causes it to flow better.


** Segmented Worms (Annelids) = Bristles in lower part of each segment , SETAE, anchor worm in earth while muscles push ahead.

23

The Skeletal System
*Exoskeleton
-Arthropods- what are they made of?

-Arthropods - made of hard CHITLIN,molting for growth.

24

The Skeletal System
- What is the Vertebrate Skeleton comprised of?
- What are two major components for it?

It is comprised of an ENDOSKELETON.

2 major components are CARTILAGE and BONE.

25

The Skeletal System
-Vertebrate Skeleton
1. Cartilage - what kind of tissue is it made out of?
What are the 3 types of cartilage?

Cartilage is made of AVASCULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is softer and more flexible (Ex - ear, nose, larynx, trachea.)

3 Types:
1)Hyaline (most common; absorbs shock in joints)
2) Fibrocartilage
3. Elastic cartilage.

26

The Skeletal System

Bone - Is made out of what kind of tissue?
Function -

Made of connective tissue; hard and strong.

Function - helps protect organs, assist in body movement.

27

The Skeletal System

Bone has 4 different types of cells:
1.Osteoprogenitor
2. Osteoblasts
3. Osteocytes
4. Osteoclasts

Bone has 4 different types of cells:

1.Osteoprogenitor - differentiate into osteoblasts
2. Osteoblasts = build bone. BLASTS means BUILD!

3. Osteocytes = incapable of mitosis

4. Osteoclasts = Destroy bone

28

The Integumentary (Skin) System
-Functions of Skin
*Thermoregulation -
* Protection -
*Excretion -
* Immunity -
*Blood reservoir -
*Vit D synthesis -

-Functions of Skin
*Thermoregulation - helps regulate body temp.
* Protection - skin is a physical barrier.
*Excretion - water/salt excreted thru skin
* Immunity - cells made of epidermis are components of immune system.
*Blood reservoir - Vessels in the dermis hold up to 10% of the blood
*Vit D synthesis - UV radiation activated skin molecule that is precursor to vit D.

29

The Integumentary (Skin) System
Structure of the Skin
-Epidermis - what is it? Tissue?
*Stratum Corneum-(top layer)
*S. Lucidum
* S. Granulosum
*S. spinosum
*S. Basale(bottom layer)

Structure of the Skin
-Epidermis - what is it? Top layer. Avascular epithelial tissue. Layers from TOP TO BOTTOM:

*Stratum Corneum- (top layer)25-30 dead layers; filled w keratin and surround lipids
*S. Lucidum- palms & soles of feet, finger tips
* S. Granulosum - 3-5 layer of dying cells
*S. spinosum - Strength and flexibility
*S. Basale - (bottom layer)Contains Merkel cells and stem cells that produce keratinocytes.

30

The Integumentary (Skin) System
Structure of the Skin

-Cells of the epidermis:
1. Keratinocytes
2. Melanocytes
3. Langerhans cells
4. Merkel Cells

-Cells of the epidermis:
1. Keratinocytes - helps waterproof the skin
2. Melanocytes - transfer skin pigment melanin to keratinocytes.
3. Langerhans cells- interact w helper T-cells of immune system.
4. Merkel Cells - Attach to sensory neurons and fxn in touch sensation.

31

The Integumentary (Skin) System
Structure of the Skin
-Dermis - What kind of tissue?
- What are the two regions for it?

Made of primarily connective tissue,

2 regions:
A) Papillary Region -top 20%
B) Reticular Region -Dense connective tissue. Majority of the region.

32

The Integumentary (Skin) System
Structure of the Skin

-Hypodermins(subcutaneous)- what kind of tissue?

Not part of the skin.
Areolar and adipose tissue. Fat storage.

33

The Integumentary (Skin) System

Glands of the Skin
1. Sebaceous (Oil) glands
2. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands
*Eccrine
*Apocrine

3. Ceruminous(wax) glands-
4. Mammary(milk) glands-


1. Sebaceous (Oil) glands- Connected to hair follicles absent in palms and soles.

2. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands *Eccrine - most of the body. Regulated temperature thru perspiration
*Apocrine - armpits, pubic region, nipples,

3. Ceruminous(wax) glands - found in ear canal; produces wax-like
4. Mammary(milk) glands

34

The Immune System

Types of WBC's
Phagocytes - Nuetrophils
*Chemotaxis

Most abundant WBC's. They play a key role in infection. Injured areas by chemicals in process called CHEMOTAXIS

35

The Immune System

Types of WBC's
Phagocytes - Monocytes
*Macrohages

Move into tissues where they develop into MACROPHAGES(which phagocytize cell debris/pathogens.

36

The Immune System

Types of WBC's
Phagocytes - EOSINOPHILS

Work collectively to surround and destroy multicellular parasites.

37

The Immune System

Types of WBC's
Phagocytes - Dendritic Cells(monocyte)

Main function is to activate T- cells. Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells which are able to mark out cells that are antigens (foreign bodies) that need to be destroyed by lymphocytes.

38

The Immune System

Types of WBC's
Phagocytes - Mast Cells

Release histamine which causes vasodilation(inflammatory)

39

The Immune System - 2nd line of defense
Lymphocytes
- Basophils

Releases histamines for inflammatory response for allergic reactions

40

The Immune System - 2nd line of defense
Lymphocytes
-Complements how many proteins?
-What does it attract and destroy?

20 compliment proteins; help attract phagocytes to foreign cells and help destroy by promoting cell lysis.

41

The Immune System - 2nd line of defense
Lymphocytes
-INTERFERONS -

Interferons are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells

42

The Immune System - 2nd line of defense
INFLAMATORY RESPONSE
1. Histamine
2. Vasodilation
3. Phagocytes
4. Complement

NFLAMATORY RESPONSE
1. Histamine - Secreted by basophils. Causes vasodilation.
2. Vasodilation - stimulated by histamine, increases blood supply to area.
3. Phagocytes - Attracted to injury by chemical gradients of complement, engulfs damaged cells.
4. Complement- Helps phagocytes engulf foreign cells

43

The Immune System - 3rd line of defense

Major Histocompatibility Complex- Or MHC

The mechanism by which the immune system is able to differentiate b/w self and non-self cells.
- The MHC is a collection of glycoproteins that exists on the membranes of all body cells.

44

The Immune System - 3rd line of defense

LYMPHOCYTES- What areas do they attend to?

Primary agents of immune response. They concentrate on lymphatic tissues such as lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen.

45

The Immune System - 3rd line of defense

LYMPHOCYTES - ( B-Cells)
*Antigen receptors
* Antibodies

What are the 5 classes of antibodies (or IMMUNOGLOBULINS)

B-CELLS (antibodies) are lymphocytes that originate and mature in bone marrow. B-CELLS respond to ANTIGENS. B-cells are characterized by ANTIGEN RECEPTORS called ANTIBODIES.

-5 classes of antibodies = IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM

46

The Immune System - 3rd line of defense

LYMPHOCYTES - ( B-Cells)
*When antigen bound to B cell -->
* Plasma Cells
* Memory Cells

When antigen bound to B cell --> Proliferation(2 copies) into daughter B cells----------> Plasma Cells
Plasma Cells = B cells that release specific antibodies that circulate in blood.
Memory Cells = Long-lived B cells that do not release antibodies in response to immediate antigen invasion.

47

The Immune System - 3rd line of defense

LYMPHOCYTES - T CELLS (foreign)

T CELLS are lymphocytes that originate in the bone marrow, but mature in the thymus gland (T cell for Thymus). Like B cells, the plasma membrane of T cells have antigen receptors.

48

The Immune System - 3rd line of defense

LYMPHOCYTES - T CELLS (foreign)
* When T cells encounter nonself cells - what do they do?
*Cytotoxic T cells
*Helper T cells
* Suppressor T cells
* Memory T cells

* When T cells encounter nonself cells - what do they do? - They divide and produce 4 kinds of cells.
*Cytotoxic T cells - KILLER T-CELLS recognize and destroy
*Helper T cells- Stimulate activation of B cells. cytotoxic T cells, and supressor T-cells.
* Suppressor T cells - Play negative feedback role in immune system
* Memory T cells - similary fxn to memory B cells.

49

The Immune System - 3rd line of defense

LYMPHOCYTES - Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells - Attack virus-infected cells or abnormal body cells(tumors)

50

The Immune System:
Responses of immune system are categorized into 2 kinds of reactions:
1. CELL-MEDIATED RESPONSE:
A) Produce cytotoxic T cells (destroy) and helper T cells.
B) Helper T cells bind MACROPHAGES
C) Helper T cells then produce INTERLEUKINS

Effective against infected cells. Uses mostly T cells and responds to ANY NONSELF CELL, including calls invaded by pathogens.
A) Produce cytotoxic T cells (destroy) and helper T cells.
B) Helper T cells bind MACROPHAGES= (macrophages engulf pathogens = whole is nonself)
C) Helper T cells then produce INTERLEUKINS = stimulates proliferation of Tcells and B cells

51

The Immune System:
Responses of immune system are categorized into 2 kinds of reactions:
2. HUMORAL RESPONSE(antibody-mediated response)
a) B cells produce plasma cells
b) B cells produce memory cells
c) Macrophage & helper T cells stimulate B cell production.
d)General Progression ---->

Responds to antigens or pathogens that circulate in lymph or blood (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses)
a) B cells produce plasma cells
b) B cells produce memory cells
c) Macrophage & helper T cells stimulate B cell production.
d)General Progression ----> Naive ---> Mature ----> Plasma ----> Antibody.

52

The Immune System
-Humans supplement natural body defenses by:

*Antibiotics-
*Vaccines -
* Passive Immunity-

-Humans supplement natural body defenses by:

*Antibiotics- chemicals derived from bacteria or fungi that are harmful to other microorganisms.

*Vaccines -Stimulate production of memory cells from inactivated viruses or weakend bacteria
* Passive Immunity- Transferred antibodies from another individual (EX- newborns from mother)
- Acquired immediately, but short-lived
- Gamma glbulin(blood containing antibodies) - can confer temporary protection against hepatitis and other diseases.