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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (37):
1

What does the spine join to?

Occiput
Sacrum (Sacroiliojoint)

2

What is the purpose of the facet joints?

Stabilise the spinal column while allowing movement

3

What is present with a facet joint?

Superior/inferior facet articulations
Synovial joints
Hyaline cartilage

4

What can go wrong with facet joints?

OA
Pain
Ostephytes can cause nerve root impingement

5

What process accompanies C2 (axis)?

Dens process

6

What is the upper cervical region?

C1-C2

7

What movement does the Atlanto-occipital joint have?

Flexion/extension
Lateral flexions

8

What movement does the atlanto-dens joint have?>

Rotation (dens acts as the pivot)

9

Where is the greatest risk of injury within the spinal column?

Cervico-thoracic and thoraco-lumbar junctions

10

What is the thing between the vertebrae called?

Anulus fibrosus

11

What's the centre of the anulus fibrosus called?

The nucleus pulposus

12

Describe the nucleus pulposus?

Gelatinous
semi-fluid

13

What ligaments run down the length of the vertebral column?

Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament

14

What ligament is tough, elastic and links the vertebral laminae?

Ligamentum flavum

15

Is the supraspinous ligament tough or weak?

Tough

16

Are the intraspinous ligaments tough or weak?

Weak (relatively)

17

What is the 3 Column Theory of Denis?

1 column injured = stable
2 columns injured = maybe unstable
3 columns injured = unstable

18

What is the purpose of the sacroilliac joint?

Shock absorption
Joins spine to hip

19

What types of muscles accompany the spine?

Superficial (extrinsics)
Intermediate
Deep (intrinsics)

20

What is the Sarratus posterior superior/inferior

An intermediate muscle
Originates from the spinous process
Insertions is the ribs

21

What are the superficial muscles?

1. Trapezius
2. Latissimus dorsi
3. Rhomboid minor & major
4. Levatus scapularis

22

What can go wrong with the superficial muscles?

Tenderness due to spasm
Wasting from disuse or denervation

23

Describe the trapezius

Originates from the spinous process --> T12
Inserts into the occiput, spine of scapula
innervated by Accessory nerve (CN XI)

24

What is the function of the trapezius muscles?

Elevates and depresses scapula
retracts scapula

25

Describe the Latissimus dorsi

Broadest in the back
Originates from the spinous process and pelvis
Insertions is the humerus
Innervated by C6,C7,C8

26

What are the functions of the Latissimus dorsi?

Adducts, extends and internally rotates the humerus

27

Describe the Rhomboid major/minor

Minor is from the spinous process of C7/T1
The major is from the spinous process of T2-T5
Insertion is the scapula
Innervated by the dorsal scapula nerve C3/C4

28

Describe the Levatus Scapularis

Origin is the transverse process of C1
Insertion is the superior angle of the scapula
innervated by branches C4/C5

29

What is the function of the rhomboid major/minor?

Keeps the scapula against the thoracic wall
retracts scapula

30

What is the function of the levatus scapularis?

Elevates scapula

31

What are the deep (intinsic) muscles of the spine?

The erector spinae muscles

32

What is the lateral erector spinae muscle?

Iliocostalis

33

What is the medial erector spinae muscle?

Spinalis thoracis

34

What erector spinae muscle lies between the lateral and medial?

Longisimus thoracis

35

What is the origin of the erector spinae muscles?

Occiput of the skull

36

What is the insertion of the erector spinae muscles?

Pelvis (multiple level attachments along the thoracic wall)

37

What is the innervation of the erector spinae muscles?

Posterior rami of the spinal nerves