Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (37):
What does the spine join to?
What is the purpose of the facet joints?
Stabilise the spinal column while allowing movement
What is present with a facet joint?
Superior/inferior facet articulations
What can go wrong with facet joints?
Ostephytes can cause nerve root impingement
What process accompanies C2 (axis)?
What is the upper cervical region?
What movement does the Atlanto-occipital joint have?
What movement does the atlanto-dens joint have?>
Rotation (dens acts as the pivot)
Where is the greatest risk of injury within the spinal column?
Cervico-thoracic and thoraco-lumbar junctions
What is the thing between the vertebrae called?
What's the centre of the anulus fibrosus called?
The nucleus pulposus
Describe the nucleus pulposus?
What ligaments run down the length of the vertebral column?
Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament
What ligament is tough, elastic and links the vertebral laminae?
Is the supraspinous ligament tough or weak?
Are the intraspinous ligaments tough or weak?
What is the 3 Column Theory of Denis?
1 column injured = stable
2 columns injured = maybe unstable
3 columns injured = unstable
What is the purpose of the sacroilliac joint?
Joins spine to hip
What types of muscles accompany the spine?
What is the Sarratus posterior superior/inferior
An intermediate muscle
Originates from the spinous process
Insertions is the ribs
What are the superficial muscles?
2. Latissimus dorsi
3. Rhomboid minor & major
4. Levatus scapularis
What can go wrong with the superficial muscles?
Tenderness due to spasm
Wasting from disuse or denervation
Describe the trapezius
Originates from the spinous process --> T12
Inserts into the occiput, spine of scapula
innervated by Accessory nerve (CN XI)
What is the function of the trapezius muscles?
Elevates and depresses scapula
Describe the Latissimus dorsi
Broadest in the back
Originates from the spinous process and pelvis
Insertions is the humerus
Innervated by C6,C7,C8
What are the functions of the Latissimus dorsi?
Adducts, extends and internally rotates the humerus
Describe the Rhomboid major/minor
Minor is from the spinous process of C7/T1
The major is from the spinous process of T2-T5
Insertion is the scapula
Innervated by the dorsal scapula nerve C3/C4
Describe the Levatus Scapularis
Origin is the transverse process of C1
Insertion is the superior angle of the scapula
innervated by branches C4/C5
What is the function of the rhomboid major/minor?
Keeps the scapula against the thoracic wall
What is the function of the levatus scapularis?
What are the deep (intinsic) muscles of the spine?
The erector spinae muscles
What is the lateral erector spinae muscle?
What is the medial erector spinae muscle?
What erector spinae muscle lies between the lateral and medial?
What is the origin of the erector spinae muscles?
Occiput of the skull
What is the insertion of the erector spinae muscles?
Pelvis (multiple level attachments along the thoracic wall)