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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (32):
1

Is Nociceptive pain adaptive or maladaptive?

Adaptive

2

Is Inflammatory pain adaptive or maladaptive?

Adaptive

3

Is Pathological pain adaptive or maladaptive?

Maladaptive

4

What are Nociceptors?

Specific peripheral primary sensory afferent neurones normally activated preferentially by intense stimuli (e.g. thermal, mechanical, chemical) that are noxious

5

How do nociceptors work?

They are first order neurones that send information to second order neurones in the CNS by chemical synaptic transmission

6

What is nociceptive pain meant for?

early warning system and to make memories to avoid harm in the future.

7

What is inflammatory pain caused by?

by the immune system in injury, or infection

8

How does inflammatory pain help healing of a body part?

discourages physical contact and discourages movement.

9

What protective function does pathological pain have?

None

10

What disorder results in not being able to feel pain?

Congenital Insensitivity to Pain (CIP)

11

How does CIP come about?

Loss of function in the gene SCN9A that encodes a particular voltage-activated Na+ channel (Nav1.7), highly expressed in nociceptive neurones

12

What are A(delta)-fibres ?

mechanical/thermal nociceptors that are thinly myelinated (conduction velocity of around 6-30ms-1 assoc. with nipping, stabbing etc

13

What are C-fibres?

Nociceptors that are unmyelinated (conduction velocity of 0.5-2.0ms-1)
assoc. with throbbing etc

14

What is TRP?

Transient receptor protein (responds to heat) particularly TRPV1

15

What do ASICs activate?

P2X and P2Y

16

What does bradykinin activate?

B2 receptors

17

What is ASICs activated by?

H+

18

What does ASIC stand for?

Acid Sensing Ion Channels

19

Give examples of anti-TNF drugs

Etanercept
Adulimumab
Certolizumab
Infliximab

20

What conditions are anti-TNF's licensed for?

RA
psoriatic arhtritis
ankylosing spondylitis

21

What are side effects of anti-TNF's?

Infection risk is increased
Cancer
Pulmoanry fibrosis
Heart failure

22

What does Rituximab do?

monoclonal antibody against B (CD20) lymphocytes

23

What does Tocilizumab do?

Inhibits IL-6

24

What does Abatacept do?

CTLA-4 Ig - blocks full activation of T lymphocytes

25

What does Ustekinumab do?

Inhibits IL-12 and IL-23`

26

What are the 2 components to treating gout?

Acute episode
Prophylaxis

27

How is the anti-TNF treatment decided?

DAWN questions

28

What prophylaxis drugs would be used?

Allopurinol
Febuxostat
Uricosurics

29

What is allopurinol?

A Xanthine oxidase inhibitor

30

What are side effects of allopurinol?

Rash (vasculitis)
marrow aplasia
Azothioprine interaction

31

What is Febuxostat?

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor

32

What are side effects of febuxostat?

Renal impairment
Caution with ischaemic heart disease