Anatomy - The Eye and Raised Intra-Ocular Pressure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy - The Eye and Raised Intra-Ocular Pressure Deck (25)
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1

What are some leading causes for raised ICP?

  1. Brain tumour
  2. Hydrocephalus
  3. Head injury
  4. Meningitis
  5. Stroke

2

What does the Monro-Kellie hypothesis state?

The volume of the cranial cavity is constant

Brain tissue, blood and CSF are in dynamic equilibrium and an increase in one must lead to a decrease in another

3

Why can raised ICP compress the optic nerve?

Optic nerve is covered by meninges

4

What are the three meningeal layers which cover the optic nerves?

  1. Dura
  2. Arachnoid
  3. Pia

5

Which meningeal space is filled with CSF?

Sub-arachnoid space

6

The dura mater is the ________ meningeal layer

The dura mater is the toughest meningeal layer

7

Where does the dura mater receive its sensory supply?

Trigeminal nerve

8

What are enclosed within the dura mater?

Dural venous sinuses

9

What is found within the subarachnoid space?

  1. CSF
  2. Blood vessels

10

Which meningeal layer adheres directly to the brain?

Pia

11

What produces CSF?

Choroid plexus

12

What does the subarachnoid space surround?

  1. Brain
  2. Spinal cord

13

How much CSF is produced daily?

400-500mls

14

Where can CSF be reabsorbed?

Dural venous sinuses via arachnoid granulations

15

At which vertebral level does the subarachnoid space terminate?

S2

16

Where is the 3rd ventricle found within the cranial cavity?

Midline within diencephalon

17

Where are the left and right lateral ventricles found within the brain?

Left and right cerebral hemispheres

18

Which structure connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles?

Cerebral aqueduct

19

Where can the 4th ventricle be found?

Between cerebellum and pons

20

Decribe the pathway of CSF from production to reabsorption

  1. Produced by choroid plexus in lateral ventricles
  2. Drains into 3rd ventricle
  3. Drains into cerebral aqueduct
  4. Drains into 4th ventricle
  5. Drains into subarachnoid space
  6. Reabsorbed via arachnoid granulations into dural venous sinuses

21

Which nerve palsy causes the eye to look down and out?

Oculomotor

22

Which two septae formed from dura mater divide the cranial cavity?

  1. Falx cerebri (sagittal)
  2. Tentorium cerebelli (transverse)

 

23

Why is the trochlear nerve susceptible to damage?

It has the longest intracranial course

24

Palsy of the abducens nerve will lead to paralysis of which muscle?

Lateral rectus

25

What does someone look like with an abducens nerve palsy?

Medial deviation of eye (cannot move in horizontal plane)