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Ophthalmology > Ocular Pharamacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ocular Pharamacology Deck (32)
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1

Which type of drugs can penetrate the epithelium of the eye?

Lipid soluble

2

Hydrophobic drugs are limited in their absorption into the eye by what?

Stroma

3

Which steroid is commonly used in the uninflamed cornea?

Prednisolone acetate

(Hydrophobic)

4

Which steroid is commonly used for cornea disease or when low dose steroids are required?

Prednisolone phosphate

(Hydrophilic)

5

Why is prednisolone phosphate easily washed away by tears in the eye?

It cannot diffuse easily through the lipid tear film as it is hydrophilic

6

Which drug can aid the penetration of some hydrophilic drugs?

Benzalkonium

(disrupts lipid layer of tear film)

7

What may Bimatoprost be used for?

Lowering IOP in glaucoma

8

Which segment of the eye will be affected if an intracameral drug is used?

Anterior

9

Which anti-inflammatory agents can be used in the eye?

  1. Steroids
  2. Topical NSAIDs
  3. Anti-histamines
  4. Mast cell stabilises

10

When are topical steroids most commonly used?

  1. Post operation cataracts
  2. Uveitis
  3. Prevent corneal graft rejection

11

Which local effects in the eye can result from steroid use?

  1. Cataracts (steroids can be used anywhere in the body for this to occur)
  2. Glaucoma
  3. Exacerbation of viral infection

12

Name some systemic side effects of steroids

  1. Gastric ulcers
  2. Immunosuppression
  3. Osteoporosis
  4. Weight gain
  5. Diabetes
  6. Neuropsychiatric effects

13

What is glaucoma?

Group of diseases characterised by progressive optic neuropathy and characteristic visual field defects

14

How does Latanoprost work to treat glaucoma?

Opens outflow system

(increases sclera's permeability to aqueous fluid)

15

How do beta blockers treat glaucoma?

Turns tap off

(Reduced amount of aqueous humour produced by ciliary body)

16

How do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors treat glaucoma?

Turns off tap

(Reduces amount of aqueous humour produced)

17

How do alpha2 adrenergic agonists treat glaucoma?

Turns tap off

(inhibits activity of adenylate cyclase reducing cAMP and aqueous humour production by the ciliary body)

18

How do parasympathomimetic drugs treat glaucoma?

Opens outflow system

(activates cholinergic receptors of the muscarinic type. Causes trabecular meshwork to open and the aqueous humor to drain)

19

Name a prostanoid drug used to treat glaucoma

Latanoprost

20

Name a beta blocker used to treat glaucoma

  1. Timolol
  2. Betaxolol
  3. Levobunolol
  4. Carteolol

21

Name a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drug used to treat glaucoma

Dorzolamide (topical)

Acetazolamide (systemic)

22

Name an alpha2 adrenergic agonist drug used to treat glaucoma

Brimonidine

23

Name a parasympathomimetic drug used to treat glaucoma

Pilocarpine

24

Which mode of administration is used to deliver antibiotics to the eye during endophthalmitis?

Intravitreal

25

What is the basic pathophysiology behind wet macular degeneration?

Development of new blood vessels growing from the choroid to the macula

There vessels are weak and often haemorrhage

26

How is wet macular degeneration generally treated?

Anti-VEGF

27

Name a mydriatic drug

Tropicamide

Cyclopentolate

28

What is cycloplegia?

Paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye

(lens cannot change in shape to accomodate)

29

Which drug is known to cause optic neuropathy?

Ethambutol

30

Which drugs can deposit in the cornea, yet does not cause any issues?

Amiodarone