What is ptosis?
Top eyelid drooping
What may ptosis cause in children left untreated?
- Amblyopia (lazy eye)
- Permanently reduced vision due to inability to properly develop
What is the name of the glands embedded in the tarsal plates of the tarsus?
(20-25 in total)
What do Meibomian glands secrete?
Which muscles are involved in opening the eyelid?
- Levator palpebrae superioris
- Muller's muscle (superior tarsal muscle)
Which nerve is responsbile for providing motor innervation to the following muscles?
a) Levator palpebrae superioris
b) Superior tarsal muscle
a) Oculomotor (CN III)
b) Sympathetic control
Which muscle is involved in closing the eye and which nerve is it controlled by?
CN VII (facial nerve)
Horner's syndrome is a triad of which three things?
Orbital cellulitis is often bilateral
True or false?
It is much more often unilateral
What does orbital cellulitis look like superficially?
- Unilateral erythema
- Defined orbital redness
- Difficult eye movements
- Pupil problems
Why is dry eyes a common problem in autoimmune conditions?
Lacrimal gland ducts can easily scar
Why may watery eyes be treated with lubricant?
Watery eyes may be caused by dry eyes which become watery due to overcompensation
What are the 3 layers of the tear film?
- Lipid phase
- Aqueous phase
- Mucus phase
(all sit above epithelium)
Which nerve is responsible for inducing the reflex for tear production?
Which nerve senses dry eyes and signals for tear production?
Which nerve causes tear production?
Facial nerve parasympathetic nerve fibres
Which type of conjunctiva lines
a) Inner eyelids
What is special about the tissues forming the conjunctiva?
They are excellent at healing
How can the cornea be oxygenated anteriorly?
- Oxygen from air
- Palpebral conjunctiva is highly vascularised and allows oxygenation when eyes are closed
How does viral conjunctivitis present?
- Pinkish-red eyes
- Watery eyes/syrupy secretion
- Round bumps (rice grain) on lower fornix
In viral conjunctivitis, what does it suggest if the round bumps (rice grain) on lower fornix are
a) Adenoviral cause
b) Chlamydial cause
What are the three main layers of the cornea?
How quiickly does the corneal epithelium turnover?
The endothelium of the cornea is _______ replaced
The endothelium of the cornea is never replaced
Why is the cornea transparent?
Collagen fibres are well organised and regularly spaced
Why is the development of cataracts at the back of the lens worse than at the front?
This is where light is focussed
How is the lens attached to the ciliary body?
Why does the ability to focus between far and near objects reduce with age?
Lens fibres have poor regenerating
What are the two different aspects of the lens called?
- Outer part - Cortex
- Inner part - Nucleus
What comrpises the uvea?