Clinical Anatomy of Ophthalmology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Anatomy of Ophthalmology Deck (47)
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1

What is ptosis?

Top eyelid drooping

2

What may ptosis cause in children left untreated?

  1. Amblyopia (lazy eye)
  2. Permanently reduced vision due to inability to properly develop

3

What is the name of the glands embedded in the tarsal plates of the tarsus?

Meibomian glands

(20-25 in total)

4

What do Meibomian glands secrete?

Oily substance

5

Which muscles are involved in opening the eyelid?

  1. Levator palpebrae superioris
  2. Muller's muscle (superior tarsal muscle)

6

Which nerve is responsbile for providing motor innervation to the following muscles?

a) Levator palpebrae superioris

b) Superior tarsal muscle

 

a) Oculomotor (CN III)

b) Sympathetic control

7

Which muscle is involved in closing the eye and which nerve is it controlled by?

Orbicularis oculi

CN VII (facial nerve)

8

Horner's syndrome is a triad of which three things?

  1. Anhydrosis
  2. Miosis
  3. Ptosis

9

Orbital cellulitis is often bilateral

True or false?

False

It is much more often unilateral

10

What does orbital cellulitis look like superficially?

  1. Unilateral erythema
  2. Defined orbital redness
  3. Difficult eye movements
  4. Pupil problems

11

Why is dry eyes a common problem in autoimmune conditions?

Lacrimal gland ducts can easily scar

12

Why may watery eyes be treated with lubricant?

Watery eyes may be caused by dry eyes which become watery due to overcompensation

13

What are the 3 layers of the tear film?

  1. Lipid phase
  2. Aqueous phase
  3. Mucus phase

(all sit above epithelium)

14

Which nerve is responsible for inducing the reflex for tear production?

Trigeminal nerve

15

Which nerve senses dry eyes and signals for tear production?

Trigeminal nerve

16

Which nerve causes tear production?

Facial nerve parasympathetic nerve fibres

17

Which type of conjunctiva lines

a) Inner eyelids

b) Eyeball

a) Palpebrae

b) Bulbar

18

What is special about the tissues forming the conjunctiva?

They are excellent at healing

19

How can the cornea be oxygenated anteriorly?

  1. Oxygen from air
  2. Palpebral conjunctiva is highly vascularised and allows oxygenation when eyes are closed

20

How does viral conjunctivitis present?

  1. Pinkish-red eyes
  2. Watery eyes/syrupy secretion
  3. Round bumps (rice grain) on lower fornix

21

In viral conjunctivitis, what does it suggest if the round bumps (rice grain) on lower fornix are

a) Bilateral

b) Unilateral

a) Adenoviral cause

b) Chlamydial cause

22

What are the three main layers of the cornea?

  1. Epithelium
  2. Stroma
  3. Endothelium

23

How quiickly does the corneal epithelium turnover?

48hrs

24

The endothelium of the cornea is _______ replaced

The endothelium of the cornea is never replaced

25

Why is the cornea transparent?

Collagen fibres are well organised and regularly spaced

26

Why is the development of cataracts at the back of the lens worse than at the front?

This is where light is focussed

27

How is the lens attached to the ciliary body?

Zonules

28

Why does the ability to focus between far and near objects reduce with age?

Lens fibres have poor regenerating

29

What are the two different aspects of the lens called?

  1. Outer part - Cortex
  2. Inner part - Nucleus

30

What comrpises the uvea?

  1. Iris
  2. Ciliary body
  3. Choroid