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Flashcards in The Eye and Systemic Disease Deck (14)
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What is the basic pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy?

  1. Chronic hyperglycaemia
  2. Glycosylation of protein/basement membrane
  3. Loss of pericytes
  4. Microaneurysm
  5. Leakage and ischaemia


The following signs are characteristic of what?

  • Microaneurysms
  • Hard exudate
  • Cotton wool patches
  • Dot haemorrhages
  • Abnormalities of venous calibre
  • Intra-retinal microvascular abnormalities

Non-proliferative retinopathy


Why does the chance of retinal detachment increase with proliferative retinopathy?

Haemorrhaged vessels leads to fibrotic healing

Leads to contracture and retinal detachment


Why may patients with Rubeosis iridis have raised IOP?

New vessels grow into and block trabecual rmeshwork prevent drainage of aqueous humour


How do diabetic patients lose vision?

  1. Retinal oedema affceting fovea
  2. Vitreous haemorrhage
  3. Scarring/tractional retinal detachment


What are the two types of retinopathy?

  1. Non-proliferative
  2. Proliferative


How is diabeteic maculopathy treated?

  1. Optimaise diabetic management
  2. Laser
  3. Vitrectomy


The following signs are characteristic of what?

  • Attenuated blood vessels - copper or silver wiring
  • Cotton wool spots
  • Hard exudates
  • Retinal haemorrhage
  • Optic disc oedema

Hypertensive retinopathy


Which pathology will have vision loss which is painless yet very profound?

Central retinal artery occlusion


Giant cell arteritis is associated with which other condition?

Polymyalgia rheumatica


What is the most common cause of unilateral and bilateral proptosis?

Thyroid eye disease


Sjogren's syndrome consists of which triad?

  1. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
  2. Xerostomia (dry mouth)
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis


How does Stevens-Johnson syndrome affect the eyes?

  1. Symblepharon
  2. Occlusion of lacrimal glands
  3. Corneal ulcers


How can Marfan's syndrome affect the eyes?

  1. Short sighted
  2. Lens dislocation