Visual Loss and Blindness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Visual Loss and Blindness Deck (56)
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1

Sudden visual loss can have a vascular aetiology. Whhich two things does this include?

  1. Occlusion
  2. Haemorrhage

2

Occlusion of which two circulations may induce sudden visual loss?

  1. Retinal circulation
  2. Optic nerve head circulation

3

Haemorrhage from which causes may induce sudden visual loss?

  1. Abnormal new blood vessels
  2. Retinal tears

4

Which common conditions can cause the development of abnormal new vessle growth?

  1. Wet macular degeneration
  2. Diabetic retinopathy

5

The retina has a vascualr supply from which two sources?

  1. Central retinal artery
  2. Choroid (outer 1/3rd)

6

What are the classic symptoms of a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO)?

  1. Sudden profound visual loss
  2. Painless

 

7

Which classic sign of a CRAO can be seen in the pupils?

Relative afferent pupil defect

8

How can a CRAO be identified on a fundoscopy?

  1. Pale oedematous retina
  2. Thread-like retinal vessels
  3. Cherry red spot

9

What may induce a CRAO?

  1. Carotid artery disease
  2. Emboli from heart (rare)

10

How can a CRAO be treated?

If presents within 24hrs ocular massage

11

Transient CRAO is known by which other name?

Amaurosis fugax

12

What should happen with a patient who presents with amaurosis fugax?

  1. Urgent referral to stroke clinic
  2. Aspirin

13

How is the vision loss associated with a transient CRAO different from that associated with a migraine?

It is painless

14

What are the different causes for a central retinal vein occlusion?

  1. Systemic - Atherosclerosis, hypertension, hyperviscosity (Virchow's triad)
  2. Ocular - Raised IOP

15

What are the symtoms of of a CRVO?

  1. Sudden, moderate/severe visual loss
  2. Painless

16

What signs on a fundoscopy are characteristic of a CRVO?

  1. Retinal "flame" haemorrhages
  2. Dilated tortuous veins
  3. Disc and macular swelling

17

What are the treatments for a CRVO?

  1. Anti-VEGF therapies
  2. Address underlying risk factors such as diabetes or hypertension
  3. Laser therapies to target new vessel growth

18

Which arteries become occluded in ischaemic optic neuropathy?

Posterior ciliary arteries

19

What are the two forms of ischaemic optic neuropathy?

  1. Arteritic (inflammation)
  2. Non-arteritic (atherosclerosis)

20

Which condition causes arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy?

Giant cell arteritis

21

How does the optic disc present in a patient with ischaemic optic neuropathy?

Swollen

22

What are the symptoms associated with arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy?

  1. Sudden profound vision loss
  2. Irreversible blindness

23

Which symptoms are closely associated with giant cell arteritis?

  1. Tender enlarged temporal artery
  2. Headache
  3. Jaw claudication
  4. Scalp tenderness
  5. Amaurosis fugax
  6. Malaise

24

What are the symptoms of a vitreous haemorrhage?

  1. Loss of vision
  2. Floaters

25

What are the signs of vitreous haemorrhage?

  1. Loss of red reflex
  2. Haemorrhage seen on fundoscopy

26

How are non-resolving cases of vitreous haemorrhage managed?

Vitrectomy

27

What are the symptoms of a retinal detachment?

  1. Painless loss of vision
  2. Sudden onset of flashes and floaters

28

What are the signs of retinal detachment?

  1. May have relative afferent pupil defect
  2. May see tear on opthmaloscopy

29

Which type of treatment is usually required in a retinal detachment?

Surgical

30

What is the most common cause of blindness in the western world?

Age related macular degeneration