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Flashcards in Microbiology of Opthamology Deck (67)
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1

What is the term given to describe inflammation of the cornea?

Keratitis

2

What is the term to desribe entire globe inflammation?

Endophthalmitis

3

What are the main causes of bacterial conjunctivitis in neonates?

  1. S. aureus
  2. Neisseria gonorrhoea
  3. Chlamydia trachomatis

4

What are the main causes of bacterial conjunctivitis outwith the neonatal period and in the rest of life?

  1. S. aureus
  2. Streptococcus pneumonia
  3. Haemophilus influenzae

5

How is bacterial conjunctivitis normally treated?

Chloramphenical (topical antibiotic)

6

What are the two main reasons chloramphenicol may be avoided?

  1. History of aplastic anaemia
  2. Allergy

7

What is aplastic anaemia?

Disease causing damage to haematopoietic stem cells in marrow

There is deficiency of red cells, white cells and platelets

There is inability of the stem cells to generate mature blood cells

8

What are the main causes of viral conjunctivitis?

  1. Adenovirus
  2. Herpes simplex
  3. Herpes zoster

9

Why may antibiotics be prescribed in viral conjunctivitis?

Prevent secondary infection

10

Herpes zoster opthalmicus is a type of which disease?

Shingles

11

How can herpes zoster opthalmicus be identified clinically?

  1. Hutchison's sign (involvement of tip, side, or root of the nose)
  2. Red eyes
  3. Crusting lesions in CN V dermatome

12

How should herpes zoster opthalmicus be treated?

Antivirals within 72 hours

13

Subsequent to having herpes zoster opthalmicus, patients often suffer from what?

Post herpetic neuralgia

14

Chlamydial conjunctivitis is often associated with which type of history?

  1. Chronic
  2. Unresponsive to previous treatments
  3. Bilateral conuunctivitis in the young
  4. Symptoms of urethritis or vaginitis

15

The inner eyelid in chlamydial conjunctivitis has what distinctive appearance?

Follicular "rice grain" conjunctivitis

16

Keratitis may be induced by which microbe types?

  1. Bacteria
  2. Viruses
  3. Fungi

17

Which type of history is associated with a bacterial keratitis?

  1. Short
  2. Painful
  3. Hypopyon in cornea

 

18

Which clinical sign is almost pathognomonic of bacterial keratitis?

Hypopyon

19

What is the treatment plan for someone with bacterial keratitis?

  1. Hospital admission
  2. Eyedrops every hour

20

Bacterial keratitis is usually seen in association with which other factors?

  1. Other corneal pathologies
  2. Contact lens wear

21

Which type of virus will normally induce keratitis?

  1. Herpes
  2. Adenovirus

22

Herpetic keratitis is associated with which almost pathognomonic clinical sign?

Dendritic ulcer

23

Herpetic keratitis is very painful

True or false?

True

Patients may not be able to open their eyes for examination

24

What often happens with herpetic keratitis recurrences?

Corneal sensation is reduced with each recurrence

25

Why must steroids be used extremely carefully when treating herpetic keratitis?

They may induce a corneal melt and perforation

26

Adenoviral keratites are associated with which clinical sign?

Subepithelial infiltrates

27

Adenoviral keratitis will usually come on following what?

  1. URTI
  2. Adenoviral conjunctivitis

28

Usually adenoviral keratitis is self-limiting, but when chronic, which treatment may be given?

Low dose steroids

29

Which bacteria can induce keratitis?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

30

Which type of history is classical for fungal keratitis?

  1. Chronic non-severe history
  2. Farm worker who gets something in eye