What is the term given to describe inflammation of the cornea?
What is the term to desribe entire globe inflammation?
What are the main causes of bacterial conjunctivitis in neonates?
- S. aureus
- Neisseria gonorrhoea
- Chlamydia trachomatis
What are the main causes of bacterial conjunctivitis outwith the neonatal period and in the rest of life?
- S. aureus
- Streptococcus pneumonia
- Haemophilus influenzae
How is bacterial conjunctivitis normally treated?
Chloramphenical (topical antibiotic)
What are the two main reasons chloramphenicol may be avoided?
- History of aplastic anaemia
What is aplastic anaemia?
Disease causing damage to haematopoietic stem cells in marrow
There is deficiency of red cells, white cells and platelets
There is inability of the stem cells to generate mature blood cells
What are the main causes of viral conjunctivitis?
- Herpes simplex
- Herpes zoster
Why may antibiotics be prescribed in viral conjunctivitis?
Prevent secondary infection
Herpes zoster opthalmicus is a type of which disease?
How can herpes zoster opthalmicus be identified clinically?
- Hutchison's sign (involvement of tip, side, or root of the nose)
- Red eyes
- Crusting lesions in CN V dermatome
How should herpes zoster opthalmicus be treated?
Antivirals within 72 hours
Subsequent to having herpes zoster opthalmicus, patients often suffer from what?
Post herpetic neuralgia
Chlamydial conjunctivitis is often associated with which type of history?
- Unresponsive to previous treatments
- Bilateral conuunctivitis in the young
- Symptoms of urethritis or vaginitis
The inner eyelid in chlamydial conjunctivitis has what distinctive appearance?
Follicular "rice grain" conjunctivitis
Keratitis may be induced by which microbe types?
Which type of history is associated with a bacterial keratitis?
- Hypopyon in cornea
Which clinical sign is almost pathognomonic of bacterial keratitis?
What is the treatment plan for someone with bacterial keratitis?
- Hospital admission
- Eyedrops every hour
Bacterial keratitis is usually seen in association with which other factors?
- Other corneal pathologies
- Contact lens wear
Which type of virus will normally induce keratitis?
Herpetic keratitis is associated with which almost pathognomonic clinical sign?
Herpetic keratitis is very painful
True or false?
Patients may not be able to open their eyes for examination
What often happens with herpetic keratitis recurrences?
Corneal sensation is reduced with each recurrence
Why must steroids be used extremely carefully when treating herpetic keratitis?
They may induce a corneal melt and perforation
Adenoviral keratites are associated with which clinical sign?
Adenoviral keratitis will usually come on following what?
- Adenoviral conjunctivitis
Usually adenoviral keratitis is self-limiting, but when chronic, which treatment may be given?
Low dose steroids
Which bacteria can induce keratitis?
Which type of history is classical for fungal keratitis?
- Chronic non-severe history
- Farm worker who gets something in eye