Common Eye Pathologies Globally Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology > Common Eye Pathologies Globally > Flashcards

Flashcards in Common Eye Pathologies Globally Deck (35)
Loading flashcards...
1

Which score on a Snellen chart is classified as blind?

3/60 or worse

2

What is the most common cause of blindness in the elederly population within the developed world?

Age related macular degeneration

3

What is the most common cause of blindness in the working population within the developed world?

Diabetic retinopathy

4

What is the most common cause of blindness in the young within the developed world?

Inherited retinal disorders

5

What is the secondary biggest cause of blindness in the developing world?

Trachoma

(due to chlamydia trachomatis infection)

6

What is Onchocerciasis?

An infectious cause of blindness in the developing world

A parasitic fly injects larvae into the eyes causign inflammation and corneal scarring

7

Which complication involving the eyelashes contributes to the blindness associate with trachoma?

Trichiasis

(recirrent abraision to cornea, due to inwardly pointing eyelashes leading to blindness)

8

What is Xerophthalmia?

Abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, with inflammation and ridge formation

9

Xerophthalmia is typically associated with a deficiency in what?

Vitamin A

10

Someone with emmetropia has what type of vision?

Normal

11

What is myopia?

Short sightedness

12

Why does myopia occur?

The light focusses too soon (often in vitreaous and not on retina)

13

Why is a negative lens required for myopia?

It diverges light and causes it to focus later (on the retina)

14

What is hyperopia?

Long sightedness

15

What can hyperopia lead to in children?

  1. Squints
  2. Lazy eye

16

What is stigmatism?

Rays of light from a single point do not focus upon on a single point on the retina

This is due to the cornea being abnormally shaped

17

What is keratoconus and why does it cause distorted vision?

Progressive eye disease in which the normally round cornea thins and begins to bulge into a cone-like shape

This cone shape deflects light as it enters the eye on its way to the light-sensitive retina, causing distorted vision.

18

What are the treatment options for keratoconus?

  1. Rigid contact lenses
  2. Corneal transplant

19

What is the normal intra-ocular pressure?

11-20

20

Which type of vision is lost when diabetic retinopathy is treated with laser treatment?

  1. Peripheral
  2. Night/dim vision (rod cells destroyed)

21

How is cataracts treated?

  1. Phacoemulsification
  2. Intra-ocular lens implant

22

What is presbyopia?

Long-sightedness caused by loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye, occurring typically in middle and old age

23

Whcih features should be commented on when examining an optic disc?

  1. Colour
  2. Cup/disc ratio
  3. Contour
  4. Vessles

24

Temporal crescent pigmentation is a normal finding with which condition?

Glaucoma (advanced)

25

Argon scarring in the fundus is indicative of which condition?

Diabetic retinopathy

26

What is the swinging light reflex?

Pupillary light reflex causes constriction in both eyes when only one eye is exposed to light

Affected eye will constrict weakly in light and fully when other eye is in light

This is a relative afferent pupillary defect

27

What is photophobia?

Pain in light

28

What induces closed angle glaucoma?

Long sighted individuals are affected

Pupil dilates in dark and causes iris to bunch up closing the iridocorneal angle

29

How can closed angle glaucoma be treated?

  1. Acetazolamide
  2. Mannitol
  3. Laser to reduce pressure

30

How do steroids affect the trabecular meshwork?

Increases density