Traditional story of how Rome began. Twins abandoned and rescued by a wolf, raised by a shepherd . Grew to build Rome. Romulus later killed Remus.
Romulus and Remus
Historiographic Debate over their exact beginnings and relationship to Rome. Laid the foundation for Rome and Roman civilization, brought urbanization as a lifestyle to the Romans. Definitely ruled Rome for a time.
A small city that started on the Tiber River that eventually became a huge hub of the Roman Civilization
A trade route that stretched from China to the Mediterranean Sea that was influential for Rome.
A great social conflict that developed between patricians and plebeians; the plebeians wanted real political representation and safeguards against patrician domination.
Struggle of the Orders
A collection of laws written on twelve bronze tables. The earliest written collection of Roman Laws, drawn up by patricians about 450 b.c. that became the foundation of Roman law.
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.
The legend or story of why Rome became a Republic and swore off kings. Tale: The son of last king (Lucius Tarquinius Superbus) raped Lucretia, a married noble woman who killed herself after the rape. Lucretias father and her son lead Rome and rebel against kings. This set up the republic.
Rape of Lucretia
A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. The senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire.
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama.
An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.
Brothers who tried to reform the Roman Empire by giving back Latifundias to the small farmers but were assassinated.
Huge estates operated by slave labor that flourished in parts of the Roman Empire (singular latifundium).
A model dictator for the Romans. He organized an army, led the Romans to victory, attended victory celebrations, and returned to his farmland all within 16 days.
The Senate appointed a dictator in times of great danger for six months. As soon as danger was past, Roman dictators gave up their power (supposedly).
A periodic and official count of a country's population. - Started by the Romans.
A Roman private house.
Roman apartment blocks constructed of concrete with wooden beam floors.
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities.
Great Sewer; it was built by the Etruscans to drain the site of the Roman Forum, used as a sewer by Rome.
A circular temple at Rome with a fine Corinthian portico and a great domed roof.
Revolutionary Roman Building Material
Public places where Romans could bathe and socialize together. The water was heated underneath the baths.
A large amphitheater built in Rome around ad 70; site of the contest and combats between people and animals.
father of the family Head of household in Ancient Rome.
mother of the family - married in their early teenage years; were in charge of maintaining the household.
In ancient Rome, a fundamental social relationship in which the patron?a wealthy and powerful individual?provided legal and economic protection and assistance to clients, men of lesser status and means, and in return the clients supported the political careers and economic interests of their patron.
In ancient Rome, a member of the privileged upper class who owned land.
An ordinary citizen in the ancient Roman republic.
Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79
A Roman general who was elected consul seven times- he is known for the big changes he made to the Roman army, making it easier for men to be Roman soldiers.
Powerful commander -- earned his men's loyalty; general who used his army for his political advantage -- started a civil war in Rome; killed his enemies; reduced power of tribunes, more power to patricians.
100-44 BC. Roman general who ended Roman Republic. Conquered Gaul with his powerful army. Made himself Roman dictator in 46 BC. Assassinated by Brutus and others in 44 BC because he was too powerful.
A Roman gladiator who led the most serious slave revolt in Roman history from 73 to 71 B.C.E.).
(63 BCE - 14 CE) First emperor of Rome (27 BCE - 14 CE) He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil. Grandnephew to Julius Caesar.
son-in-law of Augustus who became a suspicious tyrannical Emperor of Rome after a brilliant military career (42 BC to AD 37).
Uncle of Caligula found hiding behind curtain in palace during assassination; senate disliked; he built a major new aqueduct & conquered England; was poisoned by his 4th wife.
Wife who poisoned Claudius after her son Nero was declared heir and who was then put to death by Nero.
54- 68 CE Became emperor at 16 when mom killed his step- father Claudius; persecuted Christians and blamed them for the fire in 64 CE. Built a pleasure palace on the ruins. Killed his mother, eventually committed suicide.
the Roman General who crushed the revolt in Jerusalem in 70 A.D. and destroyed Solomon's Temple. Builds the Colosseum.
(78- 81 AD) completed colosseum [started by Augustus]. During his reign Mt. Vesuvius erupted, destroying Pompeii and Herucleum.
is a term that refers to five consecutive emperors of the Roman Empire who represented a line of virtuous and just rule with the people in mind ?Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. Their reigns lasted between 96 to 180 AD.
5 Good Emperors
Ancient Roman Emperor who succeeded his father, Marcus Aurelius, and began the decline of the Roman Empire due to his eccentricity and odd ruling style.
Roman emperor who decreed capital punishment for anyone who could convert to a religion like Judaism or Christianity; generally mean but regained some strength of the empire.
AD 211-217. The son of Septimius Severus, famous for the baths he build near Rome. Ruthless, he killed his own brother Geta, but he also granted citizenship to all free men within the empire.
(245-313) Emperor of Rome who was responsible for dividing Rome into different provinces and districts. Eventually, the eastern portions of the Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.
(346? CE - 395 CE) Emperor of the Roman Empire who is responsible for making the Christian religion the official religion of the empire.
(274 CE - 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God and the Christ.
Most famous and influential apostles of Jesus who spread his teachings after his death.
Peter and Paul
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
Discipline was fierce and there was rigorous training. It was meant to bring the men together. Focused on binding the men together and creating teamwork. Organization was very structured to maintain order and discipline.
Roman historian whose history of Rome filled 142 volumes (of which only 35 survive) including the earliest history of the war with Hannibal (59 BC to AD 17).
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied.
Roman satirist who exaggerated to make his point.
a confederation of Latin cities neighboring Rome; each member held equal rights in the coalition. Rome conquered them and broke up the Latin League.
(ancient Rome) a professional combatant or a captive who entertained the public by engaging in combat.
A Roman historian who presented the facts accurately. He wrote about the good and the bad of imperial Rome in his Annals and Histories.
The first attempt of the men by the names of Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey who try to save the replublic. Caesar gains this power.
Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus.
She was the queen of Egypt known as a Ptolemaic ruler. She and Julius Caesar had an affair and they had a child together. Caesar and Cleopatra may have wanted to rule together but he was assassinated before they got the chance. Later she became married to Marc Antony which was supposed to be a peace maker between Rome and Egypt and Antony was still going to rule with Octavian. Octavian did not approve and attacked Egypt. Cleopatra and Marc Antony committed suicide.
A place previously known as Byzantium which became the capitol of the Roman Empire or "new Rome."
A Germanic tribe who settled primarily in Spain; the first such group to lay siege to Rome
A Germanic tribe that attacked Rome in 476 AD. The Leader was Odoacar, who kicked out the last Roman Emperor.
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome.
Fall of Rome
Moral decay, increasing use of vice, increasing disease, Christianity, poor government, divided empire, social unrest, gap between rich and poor, relationships for trade break down, barbarian invasions, etc.
Causes of Rome's Fall
Could own property, didn't live secluded lives, could own slaves, by the end of the republic they had more rights.
Women in Rome
Roman Emperor who succeeded Tiberius and whose uncontrolled passions and lifestyle resulted in manifest insanity and his assassination.