New Civilizations pt.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in New Civilizations pt.2 Deck (66):
1

A group of ancient city-states in southern Mesopotamia; the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia.

Sumer

2

first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers"

Mesopotamia

3

A massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mud bricks. The center of society for Mesopotamians, and the focal point of religion, social welfare, etc.

Ziggurat

4

Belief in many gods`

Polytheism

5

Belief in one god

Monotheism

6

A smaller early civilization whose development of a monotheistic faith that provided the foundation of modern Judaism, Christianity, and Islam assured them a significant place in world history.

Hebrews

7

A maritime civilization of the Mediterranean that developed extensive trade and communication networks as well as an early phonetic alphabetical script (1500 B.C.E)

Phoenicians

8

A group pf semi-nomadic peoples who migrated from central Asia to India, Europe, and the Middle East. Their language base is the basis of most European languages.

Indo-Europeans

9

An Indo-European people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. They had wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces.

Hittites

10

embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy.

Mummification

11

A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates.

Fertile Crescent

12

Known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to central Egypt. They used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire.

Assyrians

13

A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties. It was based on social class as well.

Hammurabi's Code

14

A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia. Because so many symbols had to be learned, literacy was confined to a relatively small group of administrators and scribes.

Cuneiform

15

People trained to write using the earliest forms of writing before literacy was widespread.

Scribes

16

Characters that stand for objects.

Pictographs

17

An alphabet of characters intended to represent specific sounds of speech

Phonetic Alphabet

18

Ancient Egyptian writing system using picture symbols for ideas or sounds.

Hieroglyphics

19

form of hieroglyphic, more popular for everyday types of writing bc it was less illustrative and characters were highly abstract and symbolic.

Demotic Script

20

A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.

Judaism

21

"political geography" - analyzes the geography impacts political decisions. For example, how Mesopotamia was conquered and turned into an empire based on its desert landscape.

Geopolitics

22

An ancient city of Mesopotamia known for its wealth, luxury, and vice. It was known for cultural innovation like the calendar and its mathematics system.

Babylon

23

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Ziggurat

24

Egyptians built these structures to protect the bodies of dead pharaohs. These structures also contained items the pharaohs might need in the afterlife.

Pyramids

25

Large building projects that go way beyond the Neolithic Era, they are a hallmark of the move toward civilization because of the clear indication of specialized labor and wealth accumulation by a central power.

Monumental Architecture

26

Egypt became too large to be governed alone, so the Pharaohs started a bureaucracy, taxation, etc. to manage various lands during this time. Also, the most iconic monuments of Egypt were built during the Old Kingdom.

Old Kingdom Egypt

27

The beginning of a kingdom that is more focused on commoners but still ruled by a Pharaoh and bureaucracy. The lower class is more protected, and building projects are for the people, like canals, roads, granaries, etc.

Middle Kingdom Egypt

28

Egyptian: The most militaristic of the three Egyptian kingdoms, it arose after the Hyksos were kicked out. It expanded past the Sinai peninsula. The most well-known Pharaohs were from this er

New Kingdom Egypt

29

Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk (monotheism). After his death it returned to the old religious polytheism.

Akhenaten

30

1480 BC Queen Hatshepsut came to power during the New Kingdom, first ruling with her husband and then on behalf of her stepson, Thutmose III. Had herself crowned pharaoh. Successful! Wore false beard, usually worn by kings, claimed descent from the gods. Built great funeral temple in Valley of the Kings.

Hatshepsut

31

A pharaoh who ruled Egypt for 66 years and expanded the egyptian empire by conquering surrounding territories. Also built some amazing monumental architecture.

Ramses II

32

Saved Egypt. Spent most of his reign reestablishing control over areas that had been lost during the tumultuous kingship of Akenaten. Reconquered Canaan and Syria coming into conflict with the Hittites. Built a huge temple complex at Abydos.

Seti I

33

A young king whose tomb was filled with jewelry, robes, burial masks, and ivory statues. These findings have helped people learn about Egypt's past.

King Tut

34

The most important and biggest river that runs through Egypt. It helped the Egyptians with transportation, crops, flooding and more. It was considered sacred.

The Nile

35

The people in Eastern Africa south of Egypt who were rivals of the ancient Egyptians and known for their flourishing kingdom between the 400s BC and the 400s CE. They speak their own language and were known by the Egyptians for their darker skin and access to luxury items like Gold, precious stones, and animal skins.

Nubians

36

A pastoral nomadic group of unknown ethnicity that invaded Egypt and ruled in the north from 1650 to 1535 B.C.E., ending the Bronze Age. Their dominance was based on their use of horses, chariots, and bronze technology. Eventually the Egyptians kicked them out/absorbed them.

Hyksos

37

A huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing.

Rosetta Stone

38

Egyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead.

Osiris

39

Egyptian falcon-headed solar god.

Horus

40

Egyptian goddess who appealed especially to women. She promised life after death to people who were faithful.

Isis

41

A conqueror from Akkad, north of Sumer, who took over all of Mesopotamia and created the world's first empire.

Sargon of Akkad

42

"Semitic people" north of the Sumerian city-states - they created the first empire in history.

Akkadians

43

Akhenaton's queen; her name means "The beautiful one is here."

Nefertiti

44

.

The Great Sphinx

45

Important innovation of Mesopotamia that enhanced trade and made better pottery possible.

The Wheel

46

People who specialized in jobs and became skilled craftworkers.

Artisans

47

The technology that changed warfare because it's harder than Bronze and more widely available.

Iron

48

A metal alloy consisting of 90% copper with tin and sometimes zinc comprising the other 10% - use for weaponry among other things.

Bronze

49

2 major rivers of Mesopotamia

Tigris and Euphrates

50

Cities, Government, Art, Religion, Social Structure, Writing

Six aspects of Civilization (according to your book)

51

"Great Man" or priest kings of ancient Mesopotamian city-states.

Lu Gal

52

A ruler of ancient Egypt. It varied over time whether he was seen as a god-king or priest-king.

Pharaoh

53

The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction. It shows the relationship between humans and their environment as well as the relationship between humans and their gods.

Epic of Gilgamesh

54

Usually due to prisoners of war or debt, the earliest forms of slavery were not based on race at all. It helped with the agricultural production in the new agricultural societies.

Slavery

55

A system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials.

Bureaucracy

56

1st Middle Kingdom Pharaoh that conquered south into Nubia and built massive fortresses in his wake. He sparked a golden age of art, literature, and building projects.

Sesostris III

57

First Female Pharaoh, although she only ruled for three - four years. She was the last Pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Sobekeneferu

58

1000-962 BCE Very successful military leader of Ancient Israel; built a palace in Jerusalem; united the 12 tribes of Israel; made Jerusalem capital city and financial/religious center; Jesus comes from his bloodline.

King David

59

First King of United Israel during a time of constant warfare with neighboring tribes. Chosen from the elite of his culture, he was 6'6"!

King Saul

60

A great Hebrew King who built a temple in Jerusalem (around 962 B.C.) After his death though, the tribes split into two kingdoms, Israel and Judah. This weakened them

King Solomon

61

(Bible) an agreement between God and his people (Hebrews) in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return.

Covenant

62

At the heart of Judaism are what set of laws?

10 Commandments

63

The empire that began with the rebellion of Babylonians against the Assyrians, conquered Phoenicia, Israel, and Judah, deported Jews to Babylon

Neo-Babylonians

64

The dispersal or spread of the Jews away from their homeland.

Jewish Diaspora

65

Period of time in between the end of Old Kingdom and beginning of Middle Kingdom. Began when weak leaders led Egypt into civil wars, nomarchs held power not Pharaohs.

1st Intermediate Period

66

Period of time in between the end of Old Kingdom and beginning of Middle Kingdom. Began when weak leaders led Egypt into civil wars, nomarchs held power not Pharaohs.

2nd Intermediate Period