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Flashcards in Middle Ages in Europe Deck (35):
1

An old Greek city, renamed Constantinople, that became the center of the Byzantine Empire; present day Istanbul.

Byzantium

2

A place previously known as Byzantium which became the capitol of the Roman Empire or "new Rome," this city became the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

Constantinople

3

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code.

Justinian

4

An organized collection and explaination of Roman laws for use by the Byzantine empire. It contributed to our laws today.

Justinian's Code

5

Byzantine empress; she was married to Justinian and exerted a great influence over him and over the political and religious events of the empire.

Theodora

6

Built by Justinian; A huge stadium; Held athletic events and games; Seated 60,000 people located in Constantinople. Site of Nike Revolt.

Hippodrome

7

Chariot races were intense, a fight broke out int the street between the blue and green team leaders, so Justinian had them arrested. when he didnt set them free for the next race the whole hippodrome of people revolted. Justinian was about to flee but Theodora encouraged him to stay and fight. He did and murdered everyone.

Nike Revolt

8

Disease similar to bubonic plague, and hit in the later years of Justinian's reign.

Plague of Justinian

9

(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. It lasted until it was taken over in 1453 C.E.

Byzantine Empire

10

Byzantine emperor that defeated the Persians and reorganized the empire into themes, or sections ruled by a military governor. He also increased the cultural elements of the empire.

Heraclius

11

Eastern branch of Christianity centered in Constantinople.

Greek Orthodox

12

A principal bishop in the eastern branch of Christianity.

Patriarch

13

A belief that the practice of worshiping and honoring objects such as icons was sinful became pervasive, which led to a conflict between those who wanted images and those who did not.

Iconoclasm

14

A person who attacks and ridicules cherished figures, ideas, and institutions - in this case, the use of images in the church.

Iconoclast

15

Men who devote their time to praying, studying, and copying, and decorating holy books by hand.

Monks

16

A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith.

Monasticism

17

Angles, Saxons, Franks, Vandals, Goths, etc.

Germanic Tribes that begin to settle down.

18

Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia.

Vikings

19

(325 CE) A council called by Constantine to agree upon correct Christian doctrine and settle some disputes of the time. Determined the belief in the Holy Trinity.

council of Nicaea

20

Religion which believed that Christ was only a mortal man begotten of God and reduced his role to the lesser demigod. The Goths, Egyptian Christians, and barbaric Christians of Europe practiced this. It eventually fizzled out after the dominant "Nicene Creed" came into play.

Arian Christianity

21

A formal statement of Christian belief widely used in Christian liturgies, adopted at the first Council of Nicaea in 325.

Nicene Creed

22

The Hammer the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.

Charles Martel

23

800 AD crowned by the Pope as the head of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy.

Charlemagne

24

Referring to the rule of Charlemagne, the Franks fell under one centralized rule of a man considered incredibly intelligent and militarily and diplomatically gifted. He was sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church and in the creation of his own bureaucracy, he established imperial officials (missi dominici) to oversea the actions of local authorities. After his death in 814, subsequent leaders lost control over different parts of the empire from the bureaucracy and territory due to incompetence and external pressures in the form of the Muslims, Magyars and Vikings.

Carolingian Empire

25

a reform of handwriting devised by monks at the monasteries of Corbie and Tours in the year 800. a new type of formal literacy writing using lowercase letters. Its standards of capitalizing the first letters of sentences is the basis of our modern printing.

Carolingian Miniscule

26

A Germanic empire located chiefly in central Europe that began with the coronation of Charlemagne as Roman emperor in a.d. 800 (or, according to some historians, with the coronation of Otto the Great, king of Germany, in a.d. 962)

Holy Roman Empire

27

A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.

Feudalism

28

A person who is paid in land or other fees to serve a lord or higher position in society militarily.

Retainer

29

a person under the protection of a feudal lord to whom he or she owes allegiance; a subordinate or dependent

Vassal

30

An economic system based on the manor and lands including a village and surrounding acreage which were administered by a lord. It developed during the Middle Ages to increase agricultural production.

Manorialism

31

5th century Frankish leader of a large kingdom who converted to Christianity.

Clovis

32

Bishop of Rome; head of the Catholic church in western Europe.

Pope

33

A community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion. Often centers of translation, learning, etc.

Monastery

34

monks in the order founded by St. Benedict

Benedictine Monks

35

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Hagia Sophia