(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
(late 1300s - early 1400s) preached in Bohemia, supported the idea of Utraquist. The Council of Constance burned him at the stake as a heretic.
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not support the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
The "Warrior-Pope"; most involved in war and politics; personally led armies against enemies; instituted reconstruction on St. Peter's Basilica.
Pope Julius II
Began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
Pope Leo X
(1484-1531) Swiss humanist, priest and disciple of Erasmus. Founded the reform church in Switzerland. Much like Luther's but differed over nature of Communion.
The meeting of Luther and Zwingli to unite their two movements. They failed over the issue of communion. Zwingli believed the Bread and Wine were symbolic. Luther could not go that far.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
1st wife of Henry VIII. Mother of Mary I. Henry's desire for a divorce from her precipitated England's break with Rome.
Catherine of Aragon
Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.
Henry VIII, a devout member of the Roman church, attacked Luther's doctrines in 1520 in this book.
Defense of the Seven Sacraments
(1545-1563); met periodically to discuss the Church's reformation. Ultimately decided to keep all 7 sacraments, and keep celibacy, among other things. They'd reform the education of priests etc.
Council of Trent
A religious order known as the Society of Jesus, created to strengthen support of the Catholic Church during the Counter-Reformation.
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
Ignatius of Loyola
Archbishop Albert hired John Tetzel to sell indulgences to the people. Tetzel even made up an advertising scheme for the sale of indulgences. He drew up a chart with the prices for the forgiveness of sins.
(1509-1564) The Frenchman was influenced by Luther and converted religions and became a highly influential Protestant leader. His "The Institutes of the Christian Religion" (1535) which expressed his view on Christian teachings as faith oriented.
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life, including whether he or she is ultimately saved.
Location of a new Calvinist sect
A Protestant Christian religion characterized by governance by a group of elders and traditionally Calvinistic in doctrine.
Another name for the Church of England.
Bishops selling positions in the Church.
Favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs).
A pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin.
Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the church door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation.
(1519-1556) - Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands. Devout Catholic who wanted to see Catholicism restored in the HRE.
Rebellion broke out against all authority in 1524-1525 in Germany over class struggles and religious revolts. Luther did not approve of this, despite being blamed for it.
Martin Luther's prince who gave him a place to hide after he was declared an outlaw.
Frederick the Wise
1534 Declared the king to be head of the English church rather than the Pope (created by Henry VIII)
Act of Supremacy
document passed by the Reformation Parliament in the same year as the Act of Supremacy that made Anne Boleyn's children legitimate heirs to the throne
Act of Succession
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
A severe penalty imposed by the Church for serious sins against the Catholic religion; it brings exclusion from participation in the sacramental life of the Church.
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Diet of Worms