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Flashcards in Italian Renaissance Deck (39):
1

A new era of thought and feeling. Europe and its institutions were changed from their forms in the Middle Ages. High culture, literature, the arts, education, and morals were changed.

Italian Renaissance

2

A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.

Humanism

3

Rebirth of art, culture, and intellect that started in Italy

Renaissance

4

Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters

Secular

5

Father of Humanism. studied classical Greek and Latin. Famous for his "Letters to Laura."

Petrarch

6

(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society. (Not so religious)

Boccaccio

7

1469-1527. Italian political theorist whose book The Prince (1513) describes the achievement and maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations.

Machiavelli

8

1478-1529, Baldassare - Humanist and Papal diplomat. Wrote The Book of the Courtierwith rules of gentlemanly behavior. Should know Greek, Latin, have fluent writing style in both classical and vernacular. Important advocate of humanistic education and stressed study of classics and literature.

Castiglione

9

An educated, privelaged, humanistic woman who wrote poetry and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies." This brought on a debate about the role of women in society.

Christine de Pisan

10

A woman who exercised power which was out of the norm. She was born into the ruling family of a city-state and married the ruler of another city-state. She brought many Renaissance artists to her court and built a famous art collection. She was also skilled in politics and when her husband was taken captive in war, she defended him and won his release. She even ruled for a bit while he was gone.

Isabella de Este

11

Written by Niccolo Machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved"

The Prince

12

Everyday language of ordinary people/ a specific place.

Vernacular

13

A durable method of painting on a wall by using watercolors on wet plaster.

Fresco

14

#NAME?

Characteristics of Renaissance Art

15

A Renaissance writer who wrote the Divine Comedy in his native language - "perfected" Italian.

Dante Alighieri

16

France's most popular Renaissance author. Rejected the Middle Age's focus on the afterlife and believed that people should enjoy life to the fullest.

Francois Rabelais

17

1452-1498 Franciscan friar in Florence who objected to many of the new attitudes in the Renaissance - saw them as satanical. Gained power in Florence in 1494 at a time of Medici weakness and used strict, puritanical rule. Overthrown in 1498 and burned at stake. Medici returned to power but great age of Florence had passed.

Savonarola

18

An Italian city-state and leading cultural center during the Renaissance.

Florence

19

An Italian city-state during, before, and after the Renaissance period. It specialized in long-distance trade and the production of glass and had an oligarchic republic.

Venice

20

An Italian city-state during, before, and after the Renaissance period. It had a dictatorship and specialized in the production of armor. It allied with France in 1494 against Florence and Venice.

Milan

21

A kingdom in southern Italy controlled by the Hapsburgs (through Spain). Mainly excluded from the Renaissance as they focused on agriculture.

Naples

22

A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. During the Renaissance = an area of wealth and power.

Papal States

23

This created an alliance in Italy between Milan, Naples, and Florence vs. the Papal States and Venice. It was is in effect from 1454 and 1494.

Treaty of Lodi

24

(1389-1464) The first semi-stable ruler of Florence, he controlled the government with his considerable wealth through the Medici Bank, the first international bank that funded the Papal States and many large European financial centers. This considerable private wealth enabled him to become a patron of the arts and a customer of many famous artists.

Cosimo de Medici

25

Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)

Lorenzo de Medici

26

Florentine ruler, tried to placate the French king by handing over Pisa and other Florentine possessions, succeeded by Savonarola.

Piero de Medici

27

A ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan.

Sforza

28

Duke; a ruler of the Republic of Venice, Italy.

Doge

29

Italy had been the center of the Roman Empire. Ruins and art surrounded the Italians and reminded them of the past. They became interested in Greek and Roman art and tried to make their own art as good. Italian cities became very wealthy which enabled them to pay painters, sculptors, and other artists to produce new works. Finally, because the region was divided into small city-states, they competed with each other to produce works that increased the fame of each city-state.

Why did the Renaissance Begin in Italy?

30

Branches of knowledge concerned with human beings and their culture: philosophy, literature, and the fine arts, as distinguished from the sciences.

Humanities

31

A mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. The system originated in Florence, Italy in the early 1400s.

Linear Perspective

32

First moveable type in Europe by Johann Gutenberg. Led to increased literacy, writing in vernacular, takes power from the Church monopoly on literacy (monks).

Printing Press

33

1452-1519, The true Renaissance man, a painter, engineer, scientist, inventor and sculptor. Most famous for the Mona Lisa, great facial expressions, Ginerva de' Benchi, Madonna of the Rocks, and the Last Supper.

Leonardo DaVinci

34

(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.

Michelangelo

35

(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.

Donatello

36

(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.

Raphael

37

1401-1428 Florentine artist, first to start using light and shade to help achieve perspective. Also developed linear perspective. First shown in The Tribute Money. Influence on other artists of the Renaissance.

Masaccio

38

(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism; sometimes called the "father of renaissance painting."

Giotto

39

Created new architecture based on Roman classical buildings, designed church of San Lorenzo in Florence that does not overwhelm the worshiper, but offers a space to fit human needs.

Filippo Brunelleschi