1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade.
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades.
An association of craftsmen in a particular trade.
A person who works for another in order to learn a trade
A person who has learned a particular trade or craft but has not become an employer, or master.
The highest level, is an employer of others in his craft or trade.
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions.
Persecution and killing of Jewish population primarily during and after the Black Death, but continued.
Prejudice against Jews
(1020-1085) powerful medieval pope; fought with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over the power to choose church officials
Pope Gregory VII
The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection. This practice was an issue within the church, who wanted to choose its own leaders.
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
Any belief that is strongly opposed to established beliefs
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
Abbess of a religious house in Western Germany; one of first important women composesrs and contributor to Gregorian chant; had visions and was mystic and prophet to kings, popes, emperors, priests
Hildegard of Bingen
Italian saint who founded the Franciscan order of friars; treated all creatures, including animals, as spiritual brothers and sisters; born to wealthy merchant family and willingly gave up a life of comfort.
St. Francis of Assisi
They tried to reform the appoint to church offices and opposed appointments made by political rulers, supported changes that would benefit society at large as well as the church.
Cluny Reform Movement
(1378-1417) Split that occurred in the Catholic Church with two Popes, one in Avignon, France and the other in Rome, Italy. The Schism caused many to question the Church's authority.
Better plow, Horse-Shoes, Crop Rotation (3 Field System)
Three Main Farming Improvements
A new innovation, the flying buttress, made it possible to better distribute the weight, eliminating the need for the heavy walls of Romanesque architecture. This allowed for many amazing stained glass windows that created a play on light inside the cathedral at different times of the day.
11th and 12th centuries and characterized by massive walls, round arches, and relatively simple ornamentation. Also, very small windows since the stone was so heavy.
(1337-1453) Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. French Victory in the end.
Hundred Years War
(c. 1412-1431) French peasant girl, a heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions; rallied French troops during the Hundred Years War to resist the English. Captured and burned at the stake.
Joan of Arc
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas. It brought together the philosophies of Aristotle and the philosophies of the Roman Catholic Church.
Everyday language of a people.
1224-1274, expression of Scholasticism in Catholic thought
St. Thomas Aquinas
(1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John "Lackland" of England was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom
Formed by Edward "Longshanks"
Parliament of England
A direct tax in France on the population. Most French nobles were exempt.
split between Eastern and Western Christian Churches turning into the Eastern Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Church
Great Schism 1054
Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.
Isabella, heir to the throne of Castile, and Ferdinand, heir to Aragon, married in 1469 and brought their kingdoms into close alliance. As a devout Roman Catholic, Isabella decided to revive the Inquisition, so Jews and Muslims were forced to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain.
Isabella and Ferdinand
A Muslim empire based in Turkey that lasted from the 1300's to 1922.
Founder of the Ottoman empire/ His empire rose in the place of the Byzantine empire.
Capital of the Ottoman Empire; named this after 1453 and the sack of Constantinople.
the Conqueror; Ottoman sultan; captured Constantinople, 1453, and destroyed the Byzantine Empire.
Controlled Russia, leaving them "behind" other European nations.
Also called plainsong, these monophonic melodies were used early on by the Catholic church.
In the 1200's called for a meeting of people from diffrenent parts of England. this gathering, called the Parliament, as an important step toward representative goverment.
The idea that women could only really have two roles in society - either be the perfect mother (Mary) or an evil temptress (Eve).
Eve vs. Mary Dichotomy
a buttress that stands apart from the main structure and connected to it by an arch
A lot of women were working - they just may not have been compensated for it accordingly. Often employed with their husbands in trades in the cities, or of course worked with them on farms.
Women's Roles in Middle Ages
1/2 of a man's, generally, for the same work.
Women's Compensation in Middle Ages
Refers to self-control and is to be practiced by both married and unmarried people - specifically a virtue of women in the Middle Ages.
a place where nuns are housed
Contemplative women celibates who live in monasteries, dedicated to a life of prayer for the Church.
Gothic Architecture example
Romanesque architecture example