Animal Form and Function- { The Endocrine System] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Animal Form and Function- { The Endocrine System] Deck (38):
1

What is the purpose of the Endocrine System?

The endocrine system produces HORMONES that help maintain homeostasis and regulate reproduction and development.

2

Endocrine-

synthesize and secretes hormones into bloodstream.

3

Exocrine

Secrete substances into ducts(Ex - Gall Bladder) (Pancreas is both exo and endo)

4

Protocrine
Autocrine -

Protocrine -Cell signaling where target is nearby.
Autocrine - is cell signaling via hormone/chemical messenger that binds to receptors or same cell.

5

Prostaglandins

Causes contraction/relaxation.

They are local regulators that promote inflammation and sensation of pain in response to injury.

6

General characteristics of hormone:

They are transported throughout body in blood ; small amount = large impact; slower effect.

7

Hormone Types
-Peptide
*Where is it manufactured and where do it end up?
* Describe some peptide hormones

Synthesized in rough ER and modified in Golgi, acts on surface receptors
-Manufactured in rough ER---->clevages in ER lumen -----> Final form is in Golgi.
They include (AP) FSH, LH, hGH, TSH, prolacting; glucagon, insulin

8

Hormone Types
-Steroid
*Where are they made?
*Hydrophobic or hydrophillic?

- Synth'd from cholesterol in smooth ER; hydrophobic = freely difuse but require protein transport molecule to dissolve in blood.

9

Hormone Types
-Tyrosine Derivatives -how is it formed?
Thyroid hormones?
Catecholamines(epi and norepi)

Tyrosine Derivatives - Formed by enzymes in cytosol or on rough ER.
Thyroid Hormones - lipid soluble, require protein from blood
Catecholamines - formed in adrenal medulla; epi and norepi.

10

Hypothalamus
- NEUROSECRETORY
-PITUITARY GLAND
-INHIBITING HORMONES
-OXYTOCIN/ ADH

Monitors the external environment and internal conditions of the body. Contains NEUROSECRETORY cells that link the hypothalamus to the PITUITARY GLAND. Regulation of the pituitary = negative feedback mechanisms by secreation of releasing and INHIBITING HORMONES. Secretes ADH and OXYTOCIN to be stored in posterior pituitary; also secretes GnRH from neurons, which stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH

11

Hypothalamus
-Anterior Pituitary -


Gland: Anterior Pituitary
Hormone: GH
Action: Cell Growth

12

Hypothalamus
-Anterior Pituitary - TROPIC HORMONES
-ACTH
-TSH(Thyroid-stimulating hormone)
-LH -(females)- corpus luteum, Males
- FSH -(males and females_


Anterior Pituitary(TROPIC HORMONES) = stimulate other endocrine glands.

ACTH - Target: Adrenal Cortex
Action: Secretion of glucocorticoids

TSH(thyroid-stimulating hormone) -
Target:Thyroid
Action:Secretion of T4 and T3

LH-
Target: Ovaries, testes
Action: Regulates oogenesis & spermatogenesis

FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) =
Target: ovaries, testes
Action: regulates oogenesis & spermatogenesis

13

Posterior Pituitary- does it or does it not make hormones? What does it store?

Does not synthesize hormones, STORES ADH and oxytocin produced by hypothalamus.

14

Posterior Pituitary-
hormone?
Action?

Target: Kidneys, mammary glands
Hormone: ADH(antidiuretic)
Action: Increases reabsorption of water

*Collecting duct --> water reabsorption and increased blood volume and pressure. Coffee blocks ADH.

* Oxytocin - secreted during childbirth - increases strength of uterine contractions and stimulates milk EJECTION

15

Pineal Gland -

Hormone: melatonin.
Action: role in circadian rhythm(internal clock).

16

Thyroid - gland? Hormone? Action?
-Calcitonin?

*Hypothyroidism -
* Hyperthyroidism -

- Located on ventral surface of trachea.

Target: bone
Hormone: T3/T4
Action: Regulates metabolism, lowers blood Ca+

Hypothyroidism - undersecretion ----> low heart rate and respiratory rate.

Hyperthyroidism - oversecretion---> increased metabolic rate and sweating
* Both lead to GOITERS


17

Disorders of the thyroid:
*Anchondroplasia
*Progeria

*Anchondroplasia - DWARFISM

*Progeria = PREMATURE AGING

18

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-
Hormone? Target?Action?

Hormone: Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Target: bone
-Action: Increases Ca2+ concentrations in blood

19

Thymus - What is it involved in?
*Thymosins
*T-cells

Thymus - involved in immune response
-Secretes THYMOSINS that stimulate lymphocytes (WBCs) to become T-CELLS(identification & destroying of infected body cells.

20

Adrenal Gland - Where is located?

- Adrenal Cortex
Hormone?
Action?

Adrenal Gland - located on top of kidneys and consists of

Hormone: Glucocorticoids(ex: cortisol) Eg: Aldosterone.
Target: general, kidney
Action: increases blood glucose, increases reabsorption of Na and K+.

21

Adrenal Medulla
Hormone?
Target?
Action?

Adrenal gland (Medulla)

Hormone: Epinephrine & norepinephrine
Target: blood vessels, liver and heart.

22

Pancreas - exocrine or endocrine?
*Islet of Landerhans
2 cell types
*Alpha cells -Hormone/action
* Beta Cells - Hormone/action
*Somatostatin

Pancreas - both exocrine & endocrine; has bundles of cells called ISLET OF LANDERHANS which contains 2 cell types:

Pancreas(alpha) -
Hormone: Glucagon
Target: liver
Action: increases blood glucose

Pancreas(beta)
Hormone: insulin
Target: liver, muscles, fat
Action:lowers blood glucose

SOMATOSTATIN - is released by delta cells of pancreasel inhibits both insulin and glucagon possibly increases nutrient absorption time.

23

Testis - Testosterone

Testosterone - spermatogenesis, secondary sex characteristics.

24

Ovaries:
Estrogen-
Progesterone -

Estrogen - menstrual cycle, secondary sex characteristics.

Progesterone - menstrual cycle, pregnancy.

25

Gastrointestinal hormones

*Gastrin-

Gastrointestinal hormones

*Gastrin- food in stomach, stimulates secretion of HCL

26

Gastrointestinal hormones
*Secretin-
*Cholecystokinin-

SECRETIN = small intestine - when acidic food enters from stomach ---> neutralize acidity of chime by secretion of alkaline bicarbonate.

CHOLECYSTOKIN - Small intestine -presence in fats ----> causes contraction of gall-bladder and release of BILE(involved in digestion of fats.

27

Posterior Pituitary: Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Posterior Pituitary:
Hormones - ADH(antidiuretic hormone)
- Oxytoxin

Target: Kidney, mammary glands

Function: Increases reabsorption of water. Milk letdown.

28

Anterior Pituitary (tropic hormones) -

Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Anterior Pituitary (tropic hormones) -

Hormones - TSH(thyroid stimulating hormones)
- ACTH(adrenocorticotropic hormones)
-FSH (follicle stimulating hormones)
- LH (luteinizing hormones

Target: Thyroid, Adrenal Cortex, Ovaries, testes

Function: Secretion of T4 and T3.
- Secretion of glucocorticoids
- Regulates oogenesis and spermatogenesis (both)

29

Anterior Pituitary(hormones)
Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Anterior Pituitary(hormones)

Hormones: PRL(prolactin)
GH(Growth hormones)

Target: Mammary glands, bone, muscle

Function: Production of milk
Stimulates growth

30

Pancreas (Alpha cells)

-Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Hormones: Glucagon

Target: liver

Function: Raise blood sugar

31

Pancreas (Beta cells)

-Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Hormones: Insulin

Target: Liver, muscles, fat

Function: Lowers blood sugar

32

Adrenal Gland(medulla)

-Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Hormones: Epinephrine(adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin)

Target: Blood vessels, live and heart.

Function: Fight or Flight

33

Adrenal Gland (cortex)
-Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Hormones:Glucocorticoids(CORTISOL)
Mineralocorticoids (ALDOSTERONE)

Target: General Kidney

Function: Secretes anti-inflammatory.

34

Thyroid

-Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Hormone: T4(thyroxin) and T3(triiodothyronine)
- Calcitonin

Target: General Bone

Function: Increases cellular metabolism and lowers blood Ca2+

35

Parathyroid

-Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Hormones:Secretes PTH(parathyroid)

Target: Testes, general
Function: Spermatogenesis, 2nd sex char.

36

Ovary
-Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Hormones: Give off Estrogen, Progesteron
Target: Uterus,
Function: Menstrual cycle, 2nd sex char. pregnancy.

37

Pineal
-Hormones, Target(which organs?), What is the function?

Hormones: Melatonin
Target: body
Function: Circadian rhythms

38

Testes
Hormone?
Action?

Hormone: Give off Testosterone

Action: Male sex characteristics