Anterior and posterior triangles of the neck Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anterior and posterior triangles of the neck Deck (68)
1

what structures are found in the posterior compartment of the neck

spinal cord
vertebral column
muscles
cervical nerve

2

lateral compartments contents

carotid sheath
IVJ
vagus
common carotid

3

contents of the anterior compartment

thyoid, parathyroid, oesophagus, trachea

4

what is the motor innervation of trapezius and SCM

spinal accessory

5

what muscles form the boundaries of the lateral and anterior cervical regions/ posterior and anterior triangles

trapezius and sternocleidomastoid

6

what nerves supply pain and proprioception to trapezius and sternocleidomastoid

C2 and 3

7

what are the attachments of trapezius

lateral third of clavicle
acromion
spine of scapula
occipital bone- superior nuchal line and external occipital protuberance
nuchal ligament
spinous processes (C7-T12)

8

what are the functions of trapezius

rotate the scapula during abduction of the humerus
elevate, adduct and depress the scapula

9

what are the functions of sternocleidomastoid

draws the head forwards, tilts and rotates the head

10

what are the attachments of sternocleidomastoid

mastoid process and superior nuchal line

sternum (manubrium)

medial third of clavicle

11

what are the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck

posterior border SCM
Ant border of trapezius
inf clavicle
apex where SCM and trapezius meet on the superior nuchal line
roof:investing layer
floor:muscles enclosed by prevertebral layer

12

where do trapezius and SCM meet superiorly

superior nuchal line

13

what covers the posterior triangle

skin and platysma

14

what forms the floor of the posterior triangle

muscles in the prevertebral column:
splenius capitis
levator scapulae
posterior and middle scalene
ant scalene is usually deep to SCM

15

where is middle scalene muscle

posterior tubercle of TP C5-7
1st rib, groove for subclavian

16

where is anterior scalene

transverse processes C3-C6
1st rib

17

what is the function of anterior scalene

nodding and side to side movements

18

what is the function of middle scalene

lateral flexion of the neck

19

what is the function of levator scapulae

fixes scapula, elevates and extends neck, lateral flexion of neck

20

what is the nerve supply to anterior scalene

C4-6

21

what are the three parts of subclavian artery in relation to anterior scalene muscle

medial
posterior
lateral

22

what is axillary fascia a continuation of

prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia

23

what is the root value of the phrenic nerve (muscle supply)

c3, 4, 5

24

what is the root number of ansa cervicalis (muscle supply)

c1,2,3

25

what is the cervical plexus made of

anterior rami of c1-4

26

what is the lesser occipital nerve (cutaneous)

c2

27

greater auricular and transverse cervical nerves (cutaneous)

c2,3

28

supraclavicular nerves (cutaneous)

c3-4

29

what does ansa cervicalis innervate (c1-3)

infrahyoid muscles

30

what are the boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck

median line of neck
anterior border SCM
inferior border of mandible
jugular notch of manubrium

31

what is the roof of the anterior triangle

subcutaneous tissue containing platysma

32

what is the floor of the anterior triangle

pharynx, larynx and thyroid gland

33

what is the innervation of platysma

cervical branch of facial nerve

34

where does the anterior belly of the digastric muscle attach to the hyoid

digastric fossa of mandible (V3)

35

what is the attachment of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle

mastoid notch of temporal bone (cn 7)

36

what are the attachments of stylohyoid

styloid process
greater wing of hyoid bone

cn 7

37

what are the attachments of geniohyoid

inferior mental spine of mandible
body of hyoid

38

what are the attachments of mylohyoid

mylohyoid line of mandible
body of hyoid
via V3

39

what does the submental triangle contain

submental lymph nodes and tributaries of ant juglular vein

40

what is the function of digastric

ant- elevates and steadies the hyoid bone when swallowing or speaking

41

what is the function of mylohyoid

elevates the hyoid and tongue when swallowing and speaking

42

what are the boundaries of the submental triangle

mandibular symphysis
anterior belly of digastric muscle
hyoid bone
mylohyoid muscle

43

what is the contents of the submandibular triangle

submandibular gland and submandibular lymph nodes
cn 12 and V3 branches
facial artery and vein

44

what are the borders of the submandibular triangle

inferior surface is the body of the mandible
posterior and anterior bellies of digastric muscle

45

what is the digastric sling

derived from pretracheal layers and allows digastric muscle to pass from ant to posterior

46

what are the borders of the carotid triangle

post belly of digastric muscle
sup belly omohyoid
ant border of SCM

47

At what level does the common carotid bifurcate

sup thyroid cartilage

48

what is the nerve supply to the carotid body

cn 11 and 10

49

what is the function of stylohyoid

elevates and retracts hyoid to elongate the floor of the mouth

50

what is the function of geniohyoid

shortens the floor of the mouth

51

what is the carotid sinus

baroreceptor

52

what is the carotid body

chemoreceptor

53

what are the attachments of thyrohyoid

oblique line of thyroid cartilage

inferior border of body and greater horn

C1 via hypoglossal n.
(CN XII)

54

what are the attachments of omohyoid

scapula

inferior border of hyoid

C1-C3 by branch of
ansa cervicalis

55

what are the attachments of sternohyoid

manubrium and medial clavicle
body of hyoid
C1-C3 by branch of ansa cervicalis

56

what is the effect of sternohyoid on the hyoid bone

depresses hyoid during swallowing

57

what is the effect of omohyoid

depresses retracts and steadies the hyoid

58

what is the function of thyrohyoid

depresses hyoid and elevates the larynx

59

what is the attachment of sternothyroid

posterior surface of manubrium
inserts on oblique line of thyroid cartilage

60

what is the function of sternothyroid

depresses hyoid and larynx

61

what is the innervation of sternothyroid

c2 and c3 by a branch of ansa cervicalis

62

what are the parts of the thyroid gland

pyramidal lobe
right and left lobes
isthmus

63

where is the thyroid gland

thyroid cartilage to 5th tracheal ring
visceral compartment of neck

64

what is the arterial supply to the thyroid gland

superior thyroid artery (1st branch of ext carotid)

inferior thyroid artery (branch of thyrocervical trunk from subclavian

65

what is the venous drainage of the thyroid

superior thyroid vein (IVJ)

middle thyroid vein (IJV)

inferior thyroid vein (brachiocephalic)

66

where are the parathyroid glands

posterior surface of thyroid gland

67

what is the blood supply of the parathyroid glands

inferior thyroid arteries

same venous drainage as thyroid

68

what does the external jugular vein drain into

subclavian