Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (79):
How is penicillin bactericidal?
Binds to PBPs...can't form wall
Inhibit cross-linkages b/w peptidoglycan chains
When is penicillin used?
T. pallidum (syphilis)
What are the potential side effects to penicillin?
What are the Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins?
Methicillin (Not used clinically)
What is the difference between the Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins and Penicillin?
The addition of large R groups prevents beta-lactamase actions
What are the aminopenicillins?
Amoxicillin (more orally available)
What can aminopenicillins be used to treat?
What Gram-'s do aminopenicillins treat?
"Aminopenicillins HELPSES with many Gram-"
What is the 'H' in "HELPSES" for aminopenicillin treatment of Gram-'s?
What are the 'E's in "HELPSES" for aminopenicillin treatment of Gram-'s?
What is the 'P' in "HELPSES" for aminopenicillin treatment of Gram-'s?
What are the 'S's in "HELPSES" for aminopenicillin treatment of Gram-'s?
What can happen if a person with mono is given an aminopenicillin?
A full-body rash
What are the carboxy penicillins?
What are carboxy penicillins used for?
What are cephalosporins?
Basically, penicillin...only less susceptible to penicillinases
What are the first generation cephalosporins?
What do cefazolin and cephalexin treat?
Some Gram-'s ("PEcK")
What does the 'P' in "PEcK"...for 1st generation cephalosporins...stand for?
What does the 'Ec' in "PEcK"...for 1st generation cephalosporins...stand for?
What does the 'K' in "PEcK"...for 1st generation cephalosporins...stand for?
What are the second generation cephalosporins?
There are like 4 of 'em...just know the 2 first gen, 1 4th gen, and that the third gen have a 't' or 'd' shortly after the 'cef'
What do the 2nd generation cephalosporins treat?
What gram-'s do 2nd generation cephalosporins treat?
What does the "PEcK" in "HENS PEcK"...for 2nd generation cephalosporins...stand for?
Same as 1st gen
What does the 'H' in "HENS"...for 2nd generation cephalosporins...stand for?
What does the 'E' in "HENS"...for 2nd generation cephalosporins...stand for?
What does the 'N' in "HENS"...for 2nd generation cephalosporins...stand for?
What does the 'S' in "HENS"...for 2nd generation cephalosporins...stand for?
What are the third generation cephalosporins?
Cefdinir (Otitis Media)
(t or d shortly after def)
When are 3rd generation cephalosporins used?
Serious gram-'s resistant to other beta-lactams
When is ceftriaxone used?
When is ceftazidime used?
What is the 4th generation cephalosporin?
When can cefepime be used?
Pseudomonas (and other gram-s)
What toxicities are seen with cephalosporins?
Vitamin K deficiency
Nephrotoxicity with aminoglycosides
Does penicillin sensitivity cross react with cephalosporins?
No...these patients may be given cephalosporins
What can't cephalosporins treat?
"Cephalosporins are LAME against some bugs"
Atypicals (Mycoplasma, chlamydia)
MRSA (except 5th gen)
What is the MoA of aztreonam?
Inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to PBP3
When is aztreonam used?
Gram- rods only...and if aminoglycosides aren't tolerated
Does penicillin sensitivity cross-react with aztreonam?
No...penicillin sensitive patients can be given aztreonam
What are the carbapenems?
When are carbapenems used?
Empiric treatment of life-threatening infections
When aren't carbapenems used?
What are some potential side effects of carbapenems?
Why is cilastatin always coupled to imipenem?
Cilastatin inhibits imipenem deactivation in the renal tubules
What is the MoA of vancomycin?
Binds to D-ala D-ala...inhibits glycopeptide polymerization
When is vancomycin used?
C. diff (oral...usually metronidazole)
Staph e endocarditis
What are the side effects of vancomycin?
Red Man Syndrome
"Mean GNATS caNNOT kill anaerobes"...what class of drugs is this for?
What are the aminoglycosides?
What are the side effects of aminoglycosides?
Ototoxicity (with loop diuretics)
When aren't aminoglycosides useful?
When are aminoglycosides used?
Severe gram- rod infections
Synergistic to beta-lactams
What is the MoA of aminoglycosides?
Prevents ribosomal initiation complex formation by binding to 30S
Causes misreading of mRNA and blocks translocation
What is the MoA of tetracyclines?
Inhibit A site by binding to 30S
What are the tetracyclines?
When is the mnemonic for when tetracyclines are used?
"VACUUM THe BedRoom"
What does the 'V' in "VACUUM THe BedRoom"...the uses of tetracycline...stand for?
What does the 'A' in "VACUUM THe BedRoom"...the uses of tetracycline...stand for?
What does the 'UU' in "VACUUM THe BedRoom"...the uses of tetracycline...stand for?
What does the 'M' in "VACUUM THe BedRoom"...the uses of tetracycline...stand for?
What does the 'T' in "VACUUM THe BedRoom"...the uses of tetracycline...stand for?
What does the 'H' in "VACUUM THe BedRoom"...the uses of tetracycline...stand for?
What does the 'B' in "VACUUM THe BedRoom"...the uses of tetracycline...stand for?
What does the 'R' in "VACUUM THe BedRoom"...the uses of tetracycline...stand for?
What are the toxicities associated with tetracyclines?
Discoloration of teeth and inhibition of bone growth in kids
NOT FOR PREGGERS
What are the macrolides?
What is the MoA of macrolides?
"Macrolides...more like macroslides"
Inhibit translocation by binding to the 23S of the 50S
What other drugs also inhibit translocation by binding to the 50S?
When is clindamycin used?
Anaerobes above the diaphragm
(Metronidazole is used for anaerobes below the diaphragm)
What is the risk with clindamycin?
Pseudomembranous colitis (C. diff)
When is linezolid used?
Outpatient MRSA or VRE
What is the streptogramin?
When is Q-pristin/D-pristin used?
Staph and strep skin infections
What are some side effects of Q-pristin/D-pristin?
What is the MoA of chloramphenicol?
Inhibits peptidyltransferase by binding to the 50S
When is chloramphenicol used?
Meningitis (H. influ, N. meningitidis, Strep pneumo)