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Flashcards in Drugs (overview-ish) Deck (87):
1

What drugs end in -afil?

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors

(Sildenafil, Tadalafil)

2

Why do patients take phosphodiesterase inhibitors? What should be avoided in patients taking these drugs?

Erectile Dysfunction (Raynaud's)

Nitrates (cause an unsafe drop in BP)

3

What drugs end in -azepam?

Benzodiazepines [frequent Cl- channel opening]

(Lorazepam, diazepam)

4

Besides -azepam, what is another suffix for benzodiazepines?

-azolam

(Alprazolam, midazolam, triazolam)

5

When are benzos used?

Anxiety (and similar)
Seizures
EtOH withdrawal
PCP overdose
General anesthesia

6

What drug should be given for benzo OD?

Flumazenil

7

What drugs end in -azine?

Phenothiazines [low block of D2 receptors]

(Chlorpromazine, thioridazine, promethazine)

8

What are phenothiazines?

Antipsychotics

9

What are the potential side effects of phenothiazines?

Extrapyramidal symptoms (akathisia and tardive dyskinesia)

Also anticholinergic, antihistamine, and a1-blockade effects

10

What drugs end in - barbital?

Barbiturates

(Phenobarbital, secobarbital)

11

Are barbiturates often used?

Not really, been replaced by benzos

(anxiolytics and hypnotics)

12

What drugs end in -bendazole?

Benzimidazoles [microtubule action]

(Mebendazole, albendazole)

13

What are benzimidazoles?

Anti-parasitics

14

Who shouldn't be given benzimidazoles?

Preggers

15

What drugs end in -caine?

Local anesthetics [Na+ channel block]

(Lidocaine, tetracaine, cocaine)

16

How is lidocaine used?

Besides as anesthetic, also as a class IB antiarrhythmatic

17

What drugs end in -chol?

Muscarinic agonists

(Bethanechol, carbachol)

18

What is bethanechol used for?

Bladder/GI hypotonia

19

What is carbachol used for?

Carbachol treats glaucoma

20

Besides the -chols, what is another direct cholinergic agonist?

Pilocarpine

21

What are the effects of pilocarpine?

Stimulates sweat, tears and saliva

"PILocarpine makes you sweat, cry, and drool into your PILow"

22

What is pilocarpine used to treat?

Open and closed angle glaucoma

23

What drugs end in -conazole?

Imidazoles [inhibs fungal p450 from making ergosterol]

(Fluconazole, ketoconazole)

24

What are imidazoles used for?

Anti-fungals

25

What are the potential side effects of -conazoles?

Testosterone synthesis inhib (gynecomastia)

Liver dysfunction

26

What drugs end in -curium?

Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers [compete with ACh for receptors]

(Atracurium, mivacurium)

27

Besides -curium, what is another suffix used for non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers?

-curonium

(Vecuronium, rocuronium)

28

What drugs end in -cycline?

Tetracyclines [bind to 30s preventing tRNA attachment]

(Tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline)

29

What are some potential side effects of tetracyclines?

GI distress
Discoloration of teeth/inhib bone growth in kids
Photosensitivity

DON'T GIVE TO PREGGERS

30

What drugs end in -dipine?

Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers

(Amlodipine, nifedipine)

31

Besides those that are expected with CCBs, what are some potential side effects of amlodipine?

Peripheral edema, flushing, dizziness, hyperprolactinemia, constipation

32

What drugs end in -dronate

Bisphosphonates [inhib osteoclast activity]

(Alendronate, risderonate)

33

What are some potential side effects of bisphosphontates?

Corrosive esophagitis
Osteonecrosis of the jaw

34

What drugs end with -etine?

SSRIs

(Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline)

35

What do SSRIs treat?

Depression
Anxiety (and similar)
Bulimia
Social phobias
PTSD

36

What are some potential side effects of SSRIs?

GI distress
Sexual dysfunction
Serotonin syndrome

37

What are the symptoms of serotonin syndrome?

Hyperthermia, confusion, myoclonus, cardiovascular collapse, flushing, diarrhea, seizures

38

How is serotonin syndrome treated?

Cyproheptadine (receptor agonist)

39

What drugs end in -flurane?

Inhaled anesthetics [unknown]

(Isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane)

40

What are some potential side effects of inhaled anesthetics?

Hepatotoxicity
Nephrotoxicity
Convulsions
Malignant hyperthermia (rare...will probably be tested on, because that's how it works)

41

How is malignant hyperthermia secondary to inhaled anesthetics treated?

Dantrolene

42

What drugs end in -gliptin?

DPP-IV inhibitors [prolong incretin effects]

(sitagliptin, saxagliptin)

43

What do incretins do?

Incretins stimulate insulin

44

What drugs end in -glitazone?

Thiazolidinediones [binds to PPAR-gamma tsx regulator to increase insulin sensitivity]

(Pioglitazone, rosiglitazone)

45

What are some potential side effects to -glitazones?

Weight gain
Hepatotoxicity
Heart failure

46

What drugs end in -ipramine?

TCAs [block uptake of NE and 5-HT]

(Clomipramine, imipramine)

47

Besides -ipramine, what other suffix is common in TCAs?

-triptyline

(Amitriptyline, nortriptyline)

48

What side effects are possible with TCAs?

Tri-Cs (Convulsions, Coma, and Cardiotoxicity)

Anticholinergic effects

49

What drugs end in -mustine?

Nitrosoureas [alkylating agent that crosses BBB]

(Lomustine, carmustine, semustine)

50

What is a nitrosourea that does not end in -mustine?

Streptozocin

51

What toxicities are possible with -mustines?

CNS toxicity (convulsions, dizziness, ataxia)

52

What drugs end in -navir?

Protease inhibitors

53

What are the potential side effects of -navirs?

Hyperglycemia, GI intolerance, lipodystrophy

54

What drugs end in -olol?

Beta blockers

55

What are the side effects of beta blockers?

CV adverse effects
CNS adverse effects
Causes hypoglycemia to have NO symptoms

56

Who should avoid/be monitored on beta blockers?

Cocaine users (unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity)
Diabetics (no symptoms if hypoglycemic)

57

What drugs end in -operidol?

Neuroleptics [high potency D2 blocker]

(Haloperidol, droperidol)

58

What are some potential side effects of -operidols?

Extrapyramidal effects
Endocrine side effects (galactorrhea)
Anticholinergic effects
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Tardive dyskinesia (oral/facial movements)

59

What is Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome?

FEVER

F- Fever
E- Encephalopathy
V- Vitals unstable
E- Enzymes increased
R- Rigidity of muscles

60

What drugs end in -phylline?

Methylxanthines [inhibs phosphodiesterase...increases cAMP]

(Theophylline, aminophylline)

61

Are there bad side effects to theophylline?

There are...which is why they are hardly used

(cardio/neurotoxicity)

62

What drugs end in -pril?

ACE inhibitors

(Lisinopril, enalapril, captopril)

63

What are the potential side effects to using ACEIs?

CATCHH

C- Cough
A- Angioedema
T- Teratogen
C- Creatinine increased
H- Hyperkalemia
H- Hypotension

64

What drugs end in -prost?

Prostaglandin analogs

(Latanoprost, travoprost)

65

What is latanoprost used for?

Glaucoma

66

What drugs end in -sartan?

Angiotensin receptor blockers

(Losartan, valsartan)

67

What drugs end in -statin?

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors [rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis]

(simvastatin, atorvastatin)

68

What are some potential side effects of -statins?

Hepatotoxicity
Rhabodmyolysis (when with vibrates and niacin)

69

What drugs end with -stigmine?

Anticholinesterases

(Neostigmine, physostigmine, rivastigmine)

70

What is neostigmine used for?

Postop and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention
Myasthenia gravis
Reversal of neuromuscular junction block

71

What is pyridostigmine used for?

Myasthenia gravis

pyRIDostiGMine gets RID of Myasthenia Gravis

72

What is physostigmine used for?

Anticholinergic toxicity

PHYsostigmine "PHYxes" atropine OD

73

What is rivastigmine used for? What other anticholinesterases are used to treat this?

Rivastigmine treats Alzheimer disease

Donepezil and Galantamine also treat Alzheimer disease

74

What anticholinesterase is used to diagnose myasthenia gravis?

Edrophonium

75

What is myasthenia gravis?

Autoantibodies to postsynaptic ACh receptors (most common NMJ disorder)

Causes ptosis, diplopia, weakness

76

What drugs end in -terol?

Beta-2 agonists

(Albuterol, salmeterol)

77

Besides the -terols, what is another beta-2 agonist?

How could anyone forget about terbutaline

78

What drugs end in -triptan?

5-HT(1B/1D) agonists

(Sumatriptan, rizatriptan)

79

What are -triptans used to treat?

Migraines/cluster headaches

80

What are some potential side effects to -triptans?

Coronary vasospasm (contraindicated in patients with CAD or Prinzmetal angina)

81

What drugs end in -tropin?

Pituitary hormones

(Somatropin, thyrotropin)

82

What drugs end in -zosin?

Alpha-1 antagonists

(Prazosin, doxazosin, terazosin)

83

What are the uses of -zosins?

Urinary symptoms of BPH
PTSD (prazosin)
HTN

84

Besides the -zosins, what is another alpha-1 antagonist? What is its primary use?

Tamsulosin is used for BPH

85

What are two examples of nonselective alpha antagonists?

Phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine

86

What is phenoxybenzamine used to treat?

Pheochromocytoma (preop)

87

When is phentolamine used?

When patients on MAOIs eat tyramine-containing foods