Flashcards in Drugs (overview-ish) Deck (87):
What drugs end in -afil?
Why do patients take phosphodiesterase inhibitors? What should be avoided in patients taking these drugs?
Erectile Dysfunction (Raynaud's)
Nitrates (cause an unsafe drop in BP)
What drugs end in -azepam?
Benzodiazepines [frequent Cl- channel opening]
Besides -azepam, what is another suffix for benzodiazepines?
(Alprazolam, midazolam, triazolam)
When are benzos used?
Anxiety (and similar)
What drug should be given for benzo OD?
What drugs end in -azine?
Phenothiazines [low block of D2 receptors]
(Chlorpromazine, thioridazine, promethazine)
What are phenothiazines?
What are the potential side effects of phenothiazines?
Extrapyramidal symptoms (akathisia and tardive dyskinesia)
Also anticholinergic, antihistamine, and a1-blockade effects
What drugs end in - barbital?
Are barbiturates often used?
Not really, been replaced by benzos
(anxiolytics and hypnotics)
What drugs end in -bendazole?
Benzimidazoles [microtubule action]
What are benzimidazoles?
Who shouldn't be given benzimidazoles?
What drugs end in -caine?
Local anesthetics [Na+ channel block]
(Lidocaine, tetracaine, cocaine)
How is lidocaine used?
Besides as anesthetic, also as a class IB antiarrhythmatic
What drugs end in -chol?
What is bethanechol used for?
What is carbachol used for?
Carbachol treats glaucoma
Besides the -chols, what is another direct cholinergic agonist?
What are the effects of pilocarpine?
Stimulates sweat, tears and saliva
"PILocarpine makes you sweat, cry, and drool into your PILow"
What is pilocarpine used to treat?
Open and closed angle glaucoma
What drugs end in -conazole?
Imidazoles [inhibs fungal p450 from making ergosterol]
What are imidazoles used for?
What are the potential side effects of -conazoles?
Testosterone synthesis inhib (gynecomastia)
What drugs end in -curium?
Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers [compete with ACh for receptors]
Besides -curium, what is another suffix used for non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers?
What drugs end in -cycline?
Tetracyclines [bind to 30s preventing tRNA attachment]
(Tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline)
What are some potential side effects of tetracyclines?
Discoloration of teeth/inhib bone growth in kids
DON'T GIVE TO PREGGERS
What drugs end in -dipine?
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers
Besides those that are expected with CCBs, what are some potential side effects of amlodipine?
Peripheral edema, flushing, dizziness, hyperprolactinemia, constipation
What drugs end in -dronate
Bisphosphonates [inhib osteoclast activity]
What are some potential side effects of bisphosphontates?
Osteonecrosis of the jaw
What drugs end with -etine?
(Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline)
What do SSRIs treat?
Anxiety (and similar)
What are some potential side effects of SSRIs?
What are the symptoms of serotonin syndrome?
Hyperthermia, confusion, myoclonus, cardiovascular collapse, flushing, diarrhea, seizures
How is serotonin syndrome treated?
Cyproheptadine (receptor agonist)
What drugs end in -flurane?
Inhaled anesthetics [unknown]
(Isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane)
What are some potential side effects of inhaled anesthetics?
Malignant hyperthermia (rare...will probably be tested on, because that's how it works)
How is malignant hyperthermia secondary to inhaled anesthetics treated?
What drugs end in -gliptin?
DPP-IV inhibitors [prolong incretin effects]
What do incretins do?
Incretins stimulate insulin
What drugs end in -glitazone?
Thiazolidinediones [binds to PPAR-gamma tsx regulator to increase insulin sensitivity]
What are some potential side effects to -glitazones?
What drugs end in -ipramine?
TCAs [block uptake of NE and 5-HT]
Besides -ipramine, what other suffix is common in TCAs?
What side effects are possible with TCAs?
Tri-Cs (Convulsions, Coma, and Cardiotoxicity)
What drugs end in -mustine?
Nitrosoureas [alkylating agent that crosses BBB]
(Lomustine, carmustine, semustine)
What is a nitrosourea that does not end in -mustine?
What toxicities are possible with -mustines?
CNS toxicity (convulsions, dizziness, ataxia)
What drugs end in -navir?
What are the potential side effects of -navirs?
Hyperglycemia, GI intolerance, lipodystrophy
What drugs end in -olol?
What are the side effects of beta blockers?
CV adverse effects
CNS adverse effects
Causes hypoglycemia to have NO symptoms
Who should avoid/be monitored on beta blockers?
Cocaine users (unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity)
Diabetics (no symptoms if hypoglycemic)
What drugs end in -operidol?
Neuroleptics [high potency D2 blocker]
What are some potential side effects of -operidols?
Endocrine side effects (galactorrhea)
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Tardive dyskinesia (oral/facial movements)
What is Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome?
V- Vitals unstable
E- Enzymes increased
R- Rigidity of muscles
What drugs end in -phylline?
Methylxanthines [inhibs phosphodiesterase...increases cAMP]
Are there bad side effects to theophylline?
There are...which is why they are hardly used
What drugs end in -pril?
(Lisinopril, enalapril, captopril)
What are the potential side effects to using ACEIs?
C- Creatinine increased
What drugs end in -prost?
What is latanoprost used for?
What drugs end in -sartan?
Angiotensin receptor blockers
What drugs end in -statin?
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors [rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis]
What are some potential side effects of -statins?
Rhabodmyolysis (when with vibrates and niacin)
What drugs end with -stigmine?
(Neostigmine, physostigmine, rivastigmine)
What is neostigmine used for?
Postop and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention
Reversal of neuromuscular junction block
What is pyridostigmine used for?
pyRIDostiGMine gets RID of Myasthenia Gravis
What is physostigmine used for?
PHYsostigmine "PHYxes" atropine OD
What is rivastigmine used for? What other anticholinesterases are used to treat this?
Rivastigmine treats Alzheimer disease
Donepezil and Galantamine also treat Alzheimer disease
What anticholinesterase is used to diagnose myasthenia gravis?
What is myasthenia gravis?
Autoantibodies to postsynaptic ACh receptors (most common NMJ disorder)
Causes ptosis, diplopia, weakness
What drugs end in -terol?
Besides the -terols, what is another beta-2 agonist?
How could anyone forget about terbutaline
What drugs end in -triptan?
What are -triptans used to treat?
What are some potential side effects to -triptans?
Coronary vasospasm (contraindicated in patients with CAD or Prinzmetal angina)
What drugs end in -tropin?
What drugs end in -zosin?
(Prazosin, doxazosin, terazosin)
What are the uses of -zosins?
Urinary symptoms of BPH
Besides the -zosins, what is another alpha-1 antagonist? What is its primary use?
Tamsulosin is used for BPH
What are two examples of nonselective alpha antagonists?
Phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine
What is phenoxybenzamine used to treat?