Immunology basics Flashcards Preview

Boards > Immunology basics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology basics Deck (34):
1

What is the order of T cell markings during development?

Double negative...neither CD4+ nor CD8+; then...
Double positive...both CD4+ and CD8+ (positive selection in cortex); then...
Single positive...either CD4+ or CD8+ (negative selection in medulla)

2

Why is there increased susceptibility to encapsulated organisms after a splenectomy?

↓ IgM → ↓ complement activation → ↓ C3 opsonization → ↑ susceptibility to encapsulated bacteria

3

What disease is associated with HLA-A3?

Hemochromatosis

4

What is the mnemonic for HLA-B27 associated diseases?

PAIR

5

What does the 'P' in "PAIR"...the HLA-B27 associated diseases mnemonic represent?

Psoriatic arthritis

6

What does the 'A' in "PAIR"...the HLA-B27 associated diseases mnemonic represent?

Ankylosing spondylitis

7

What does the 'I' in "PAIR"...the HLA-B27 associated diseases mnemonic represent?

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

8

What does the 'R' in "PAIR"...the HLA-B27 associated diseases mnemonic represent?

Reactive arthritis

9

What HLA subtype is associated with Celiac disease?

HLA-DQ2/DQ8

10

What diseases are associated with HLA-DR2?

Multiple sclerosis
Hay fever
SLE
Goodpasture syndrome

11

What HLA subtypes are associated with diabetes type I? What other diseases are associated with this subtype?

HLA-DR3 is associated with DMI, SLE, and Graves disease
HLA-DR4 is associated with DMI and rheumatoid arthritis

12

What HLA subtype is associated with pernicious anemia?

HLA-DR5

13

Antigens are presented on MHC II to Th cells. Th cells then secrete cytokines. What cytokines are secreted and what do they activate?

IL-12 → Th1 cells
IL-4 → Th2 cells
TGF-β + IL-6 → Th17 cells
TGF-β → T(reg) cells

14

What cytokines are secreted by Th1 cells?

IL-2 (all T cells)
IL-3 (all T cells)
IFN-γ

15

What does IL-2 do?

Stimulates T cells

16

What does IL-3 do?

Stimulates differentiation of bone marrow stem cells

17

What does IFN-γ do?

Activates NK cells to kill virus-infected cells
Activates macrophages
Inhibits Th2 cell differentiation

18

What cytokines are secreted from Th2 cells?

IL-2 (all T cells)
IL-3 (all T cells)
IL-4
IL-5
IL-6
IL-10 (also secreted by T(reg))

19

What does IL-4 do?

Induces differentiation into Th2 cells
Promotes B cell growth
Enhances class switching to IgE and IgG

20

What does IL-5 do?

Promotes differentiation of B cells
Enhances class switching to IgA
Stimulates the growth and differentiation of eosinophils

21

What does IL-6 do?

Causes fever
Stimulates production of acute-phase proteins

22

What does IL-10 do?

Modulates inflammatory response
Inhibits Th1 activation

23

What CD markers do T(reg) cells have? What type of cytokines are secreted by T(reg) cells?

CD3, CD4, CD25, and tsx factor FOXP3

T(reg) secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β)

24

What are some characteristics of the Fc portion of an antibody?

4 C's and a D
Constant
Carboxy terminal
Complement binding
Carbohydrate side chains
Determines isotype (IgM, IgD, etc)

25

What are some characteristics of the Fab portion of an antibody?

Antigen-binding fragment
Determines idiotype (antigen binding site)

26

What allows antibody diversity?

Recombination of VJ on light-chain (little guys on outside of 'Y')
Recombination of V(D)J on heavy-chain (tails of the 'Y')

27

Where are IgM and IgD expressed? What secretes IgA, IgE, or IgG?

IgM and IgD are on the surface of B cells
Isotype switching (in the germinal centers of lymph nodes) forms plasma cells that can secrete IgA, IgE, or IgG

28

Which Ig can cross the placenta?

IgG

29

Which Ig is released into breast milk?

IgA

30

What is seen with C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency (a complement disorder)?

Hereditary angioedema

ACE inhibitors are contraindicated

31

What increases the risk of severe, recurrent pyogenic sinus/respiratory tract infections and increases susceptibility to type III hypersensitivity reactions?

C3 deficiency (a complement disorder)

32

What causes increased susceptibility to recurrent Neisseria bacteremia?

C5-C9 deficiencies (complement disorders)

33

What causes paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria?

DAF deficiency...aka GPI anchored enzyme deficiency (a complement disorder)

34

What do IFN-β and IFN-α do?

"Prime" cells surrounding a virally-infected cell...causes cells to undergo apoptosis if the virus tries to replicate in it