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Flashcards in Basic pathology Deck (23):
1

What is the major, tell-tale difference between apoptosis and necrosis?

Apoptosis is planned and does NOT cause inflammation

2

What is the defect that causes autoimmune disorders?

Defective Fas-FasL interaction during negative selection

(part of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway)

3

What tissues undergo coagulative necrosis?

Heart, liver, kidneys...other end-artery supplied tissues

4

What gets degraded first in coagulative necrosis?

Proteins denature first...followed by enzymatic degradation

5

What is seen on biopsy with coagulative necrosis?

Necrotic tissue remains firm
Organ structure remains firm

(Infarction → wedge-shaped and pale area)

6

What would be seen on microscopy with coagulative necrosis?

Nuclei disappear
Increased cytoplasmic binding of acidophilic dye

7

What causes a red-infarction?

The necrotic tissue is loosely organized (seen in liver, lungs, and intestine), and blood re-enters

8

What are examples of liquefactive necrosis?

Necrosis in the brain
Bacterial abscesses
Pancreatitis

9

What gets degraded first with liquefactive necrosis?

Enzymes get degraded d/t release of lysosomal enzyme release

10

What causes caseous necrosis?

TB
Systemic fungi
Nocardia

11

What are some cases of fat necrosis?

Pancreatitis
Trauma

12

How does pancreatitis cause fat necrosis?

Enzymatic saponification

13

What is seen with fatty necrosis?

Dark blue staining calcium deposits

14

Where does fibrinoid necrosis take place?

Blood vessel walls...results in bright pink staining

15

What causes fibrinoid necrosis?

Vasculitis
Malignant HTN

16

What does gangrenous necrosis look like? Where will it likely occur?

Mummified tissue

Limbs or GI tract

17

What is it called when there is an infection in addition to the gangrenous necrosis?

Wet liquefactive (or gangrenous) necrosis

18

What are the two major categories of shock?

Distributive
Hypovolemic/cardiogenic

19

What are the subcategories of distributive shock?

Septic
Neurogenic
Anaphylactic

20

What kind of cardiac output is seen with distributive shock?

High-output

(↓TPR, ↑CO, ↑venous return)

21

What kind of cardiac output is seen with hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock?

Low-output (don't over think it)

(↑TPR, ↓CO, ↓venous return)

22

What is one lab that could be done to distinguish hypovolemic shock and cardiogenic shock?

Pulmonary wedge pressure (PCWP)

↓ in hypovolemic
↑ in cardiogenic

23

What is one way to possibly distinguish distributive shock from hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock at the scene w/o running any labs?

Check the skin

Distributive → vasodilation → warm, dry skin

Hypovolemic/cardiogenic → vasocosntriction → cold, clammy skin