Flashcards in Basic pathology Deck (23):
What is the major, tell-tale difference between apoptosis and necrosis?
Apoptosis is planned and does NOT cause inflammation
What is the defect that causes autoimmune disorders?
Defective Fas-FasL interaction during negative selection
(part of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway)
What tissues undergo coagulative necrosis?
Heart, liver, kidneys...other end-artery supplied tissues
What gets degraded first in coagulative necrosis?
Proteins denature first...followed by enzymatic degradation
What is seen on biopsy with coagulative necrosis?
Necrotic tissue remains firm
Organ structure remains firm
(Infarction → wedge-shaped and pale area)
What would be seen on microscopy with coagulative necrosis?
Increased cytoplasmic binding of acidophilic dye
What causes a red-infarction?
The necrotic tissue is loosely organized (seen in liver, lungs, and intestine), and blood re-enters
What are examples of liquefactive necrosis?
Necrosis in the brain
What gets degraded first with liquefactive necrosis?
Enzymes get degraded d/t release of lysosomal enzyme release
What causes caseous necrosis?
What are some cases of fat necrosis?
How does pancreatitis cause fat necrosis?
What is seen with fatty necrosis?
Dark blue staining calcium deposits
Where does fibrinoid necrosis take place?
Blood vessel walls...results in bright pink staining
What causes fibrinoid necrosis?
What does gangrenous necrosis look like? Where will it likely occur?
Limbs or GI tract
What is it called when there is an infection in addition to the gangrenous necrosis?
Wet liquefactive (or gangrenous) necrosis
What are the two major categories of shock?
What are the subcategories of distributive shock?
What kind of cardiac output is seen with distributive shock?
(↓TPR, ↑CO, ↑venous return)
What kind of cardiac output is seen with hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock?
Low-output (don't over think it)
(↑TPR, ↓CO, ↓venous return)
What is one lab that could be done to distinguish hypovolemic shock and cardiogenic shock?
Pulmonary wedge pressure (PCWP)
↓ in hypovolemic
↑ in cardiogenic