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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (28):
1

Pencillinase-resistant penicillins:
What does it treat?
What is it particularly good against?

Penicillinase producing gram positive cocci
Staphlococcus

2

Aminopenicllins:
What does it treat?
What are examples?

Broad spectrum - gram + and gram -
Ampicillin, amoxicillin

3

Extended stpectrum penicillins:
What does it treat?
What is it particularly good against?
Give examples

Gram positive, additional gram (-) activity than other penicillins
Good against pseudomonas
Ex: ticarcillin, piperacillin

4

Potentiated penicillins:
What does it work against?
Give examples

Works against beta-lactamases
Clavamox, timentin

5

What species should penicillins never be used in?
Why?

Rodents and lagomorphs
Elimination of gram positive gut flora can lead to fatal colibacillosis

6

Cephalosporins
What does it treat?

Beta-lactams, gram (+) and gram (-), anaerobes
Bactericidal

7

1st generation cephalopsorins
What does it treat?
examples

Most gram (+); bad against gram (-)
Cefazolin and Cephalexin

8

2nd generation cephalosporins

Not very popular
Gram + activity, expanded gram(-) activity

9

3rd generation cephalosporins
Examples
What disease is it good for?

Gram (+) activity; expanded gram (-) activity
Ceftiofur
BVD - no withdawal time

10

Aminoglycosides
What does it treat?
What is it particularly good against?
Give examples
What toxicity do you need to watch for?

Primary gram (-) aerobes, some gram positive: bactericidal
Pseudomonas, staphylococcus, atypical mycobacterium (nocardia/actinomyces)

Ex: gentamicin, neomycin
Toxic: nephrotoxic, ototoxic

11

Fluoroquinolones
What does it treat
What is it particularly good against?
Contraindicated in what instance?

Good gram (-) aerobes, facultative anaerobes
Atypical mycobacterium, chlamydia, mycoplasma, erhlichia, BRD
Enrofloxacin, ciproflacin
Contraindicated: in puppies bc it causes cartilage defects

12

Sulfonamides
What does it treat?
Side effects?

Gram positives, easy gram (-), anaerobes
Nocardia, actinomyces
Most drug side effects: allergic rxn, hepatotoxic, KCS, hypoT, crystalluria, anemia, bone marrow toxicity

13

Tetracyclines
What does it treat
What is it particularly good against?
What are some examples
What are side effects?

Treats gram (+), easy gram (-)
Mycoplasma, spirochetes, chlamydia, rickettsia, hemobartonella, brucella
Ex: oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycline
Doxycycline: stains teeth enamel in puppies
Chloramphenicol: causes aplastic anemia in humans

14

Lincosamides:
What does it treat?
Contraindications?

Gram positive aerobes, anaerobes
Contraindicated in rabbits, rodents, horses, and ruminants

15

Macrolides
What does it treat against?
What are some specific examples of drugs and their bugs?
Toxicity

Gram (+), select gram (-)
Great for pulmonary infections
Erythromycin - rhodococcus equi (in combo w/ rifampin)
Tilmicosin - BRD
Toxicity: in primates, horses and swine

16

Metronidazole
What does it treat?

Bactericidal and antiprotozoal
Immunomodulator in IBF

17

Rifampin
When is it used?

Used to treat rhodococcus equi in combo with erythromycin

18

What type of bacteria is most often found in septic peritonitis?

Mixed + anerobes
E. Coli is VERY common

19

What abx should be used for septic peritonitis?

Penicillin (potentiated) + fluoroquinolone or 3rd generation cephalorporin

20

What abx should be used for GI disease?

Abx is rarely indicated for GI disease
If hemorrhagic, consider treating for clostridia with metronidazole
If severe GI disease, could be salmonella - use fluoroquinolone

21

What abx should be used for parvo? Why?

Aminoglycosides - they are drug of chioce for neutropenic sepsis (amikacin)

22

what bug is most commonly found in Urinary tract infections?
What should you treat it with?

E. Coli #1 agent
Most things - 1st generation cephalosporin (cefazolin, cephalexin) or pencillin

23

What should be used in complex cystitis (UTI + sick)?

Broader spectrum antimicrobial like a potentiated penicillin (clavamox) or a penicillin + fluoroquinolone)

Aminoglycoside can also be used but NOT if patient has kidney disease

24

What should be used in AKI with pyelonephritis?

If no previous antimicrobial - potentiated penicillin or penicillin + flouroquinolone

If hx of previous drug use, use potentiated penicillin + chloramphenicol

If in lepto endemic area - use a penicillin or doxycycline

25

Abx that should be used for animal bites

If mild - penicillins (amoxicillin), if want bigger guns use potentiated penicillins (clavamox)

26

Abx that should be used for wounds that are not dog bites?

This will likely be a gram (+) infection

Use 1st generation cephalosporins (cefazolin or cephalexin)

27

Abx that should be used for surgical wounds?

These wounds are hospital acquired infections and have history of antimicrobial use so you need bigger guns
- potentiated penicillin or clindamycin + aminoglycoside (synergizes against MRSA and enterococcus)
- clindamycin or potentiated penicillin + chloramphenicol
- TMS if MRSA suspected

28

Penicillin beta-lactams

Gram positives
Gram negatives
Anareobes
Bactericidal