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Flashcards in parasitology - small animal Deck (28):
1

Ancylostoma caninum
CS in dogs and CS in humans
treatment

hookworms!
dogs = anemia
humans = cutaneous larval migrans
tx: anything that is NOT praziquantel

2

Toxocara canis (dog)
toxocara cati (cat)
CS in dog and CS in humans
transmission in dogs and in cats

Roundworms!
CS in dogs = cough in young puppies
CS in humans = visceral and ocular larval migrans
transmission in dogs: transplacentally
transmission in cats: transmammary

3

Echniococcus granulosus
how it effects humans
tx

tapeworm
causes hydatid cyst disease which is FATAL!
tx = praziquantel

4

Dipylidium caninum
IH
dx
tx

tapeworm!
IH = fleas
dx: find proglottids in feces (white rice)
tx: praziquantel

5

Taenia taeniae formis
CS
transmission
tx

tapeworm
rarely ever see CS
transmission: eating infected prey
praziquantel

6

Trichuris vulpis
tx

whipworms!
treat = fenbendazole or milbemycine oxime

7

Eimeria
transmission
what it looks like
tx

coccidia
transmitted: from eating rabbit feces
oval w/ 4 sporocyst things inside
tx: no tx needed for dogs and cats

8

Isospora
what it looks like
tx

coccidia!
those little round circles we generally call "cocci"
tx: sulfadimethoxime (Albon)

9

Cryptosporidium
what it looks like
dx
environmental tx
tx

coccidia!
round and slightly smaller than a RBC
dx: acid-fast or IFA stains
environmental tx: resistant to disinfectants, humans get it from water contamination
tx: clindamycin, azithromycin, tylosin

10

Giardia
what it looks like
diagnosis
tx

bi-nucleate, swims in "falling leaf" motion, pear shaped
dx: trophozoites in fecal smear, cysts on float, IFA, giardia ELISA
tx: zoonotic! treat w/ fenbendazole or metronidazole

11

tritrichomonas foetus
what it looks like
seen most often in which animal and what are CS?
tx

flagellated parasite that looks like giardia but has only one nucleus and undulating membrane
seen most often in KITTENS w/ unresponsive DIARRHEA
tx: ronidazole

12

Strongyloides stercoralis
CS in which animals?
dx

threadworm
in kittens and puppies with mucoid diarrhea +/- anemia
dx: baermann!!

13

Gnathosoma
what it looks like
IH
where do the adults live?
how is it zoonotic?
tx

stomach worm!
3cm long nematodes with spine-covered heads found in vomit!
- IH = copepod (near fresh water)
- adults live in stomach and cause GASTRITIS
- zoonocit from ingestion of undercooked fish
- tx: albendazole

14

Paragonimus kellicotti
what do they look like?
IH
dx
tx

lungworm!
single operculum
IH = crayfish and snails
dx = fecal sedimentation or trach wash
tx = fenbendazole or praziquantel

15

Capillaria aerophila
what it looks like

lungworm
has the ASYMMETRIC terminal plugs!!

16

Aelurostronglus abstrusus
in what animal is it found
dx
tx

common lungworm of the CAT
dx = baermann
tx = fenbendazole

17

Toxoplasma gondii
DH
zoonotic
rules of protection
what animals get it and what are the CS?
tx

DH = cats
zoonotic - infants infected in utero may have chorioretinitis and mental retardation
rules: if you clean feces right away you should be ok bc it takes 1 - 5 days after shedding for oocysts to sporulate and become infective
SHEEP, pigs, dogs and kittens
CS: abortion, stillbrith, diarrhea, cough, dyspnea, seizures, chorioretinitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, myositis
tx = clindamycin

18

Dirofilaria immitis
what is unique about it in the cat?

- cats have lower adult worm burdens
- in cats they are more likely to migrate to ectopic areas
- cats are often microfilaria negative
- worms dont survive in the cat as long

19

what is the symbiotic organism for heartworm and how is it treated?

wolbachia
tx/ with doxycycline

20

Dirofilaria immitis
diagnostic tests and what they test for (two)

Antigen test - detects female worms
Knott's test - detects microfilaria

21

tx in cats
tx in dogs

cats: corticosteroids
dogs: melarsomine (immiticide/adulticide) and ivermectin (kills microfilaria)

PLUS: strict rest to prevent pulmonary thromboembolism

22

Dipetalonema reconditum - whats special about it?

looks super similar to dirofilaria immitus but its not pathogenic!!

23

Baylisascaris procyonis
what sspecial about it?

the raccoon roundworm
zoonotic! larval migrans to the brain causing CNS disease!

24

trypanasoma
how is it transmitted?

Leishmania
transmitted by sand flies!

25

Cuterebra - what is it?
seen in what animals?
general lifecycle
tx

the botfly!
seen in cats as a swelling w/ a bit of purulent material
- eggs in environment, get on animal, body heat hatches eggs and larvae migrate to SQ locations and require breathing pore in skin where they eventually exit
- remove in one piece! rupturing it could cause anaphylaxis

26

Ctenocephalides felis
CS in cats
CS in dogs
common CS
common locations
tx

CAT FLEA
CS in cats: pruritus and irritation - can lead to flea allergy dermatitis, anemia and tapeworm infestation
CS in dogs: flea allergy dermatitis on caudal half of animal
- generalized miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic plaques
- locations: inguinal and caudal thigh regions
tx: lots o products, steroids, antihistamines and antibiotics

27

Demodex canis (dogs)
Demodex gatoi (cats)
if in young animals:
if in adults:
- only FDA approved tx
is it contagious?
where are lesions most often found?
how is it dx?
how does it look?

demodectic mange
young: inherited defect; dont breed, dont treat, it will clear on own
adults: immune suppressed, look for underlying systemic problem. tx w/ ivermectin, amitraz, milbemycin and abx for secondary infections
- its NOT contagious
- lesions: face/muzzle/periorbital/thoracic limbs
- dx: DEEP skin scrape
- cigar shaped mite

28

Scabies ascariasis
- zoonotic but what?
- CS
tx

zoonotic but fairly host specific
- CS: severe pruritis around pinnae, ventral thorax, ventral abdomen and legs will see alopecia, crusting, erythema
- tx: ivermectin, amitraz, milbemycin, selamectin