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Flashcards in Small Ruminants Deck (62):
1

Caseous lymphadenitis
Species
Agent
CS

Goats
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
CS: abscessation of supramammary lymph nodes, weight loss, potential herd and public health problem

2

Caprine arthritis encephalomyelitis (CAE)
Common disease name
CS in adults
CS in kids
Tx

"Hardbag" - seen in goats
CS in adults: udder fibrosis and results in firm udder w/ agalactia, arthritis
CS in kids: leukoencephalomyelitis and polysynovitis-arthritis
Tx: cull the goat

3

Contagious erythema
Common disease name
CS
Is it contagious or zoonotic?

Orf
CS: young goats <1 yr have scabby lesions around mouthes, noses, low-grade fever, anorexic, fall behind in weight group
It is both contagious and zoonotic!
- the scabs fall off in 2 - 4 weeks and that is how it is transmitted the next year

4

Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
Common disease name
CS
Post mortem lesions
Unique fact

Johne's disease! = Mycobacterium paratuberuclosis
CS: muscle mass loss, weak, not lactating effectively
Lesions: thickened ileocolic area, mesenteric LN are enlarged

- The disease does NOT cause obvious diarrhea in goats like it does in cows. But it does result in albumin loss through the gut causing weight loss that can be rapid.

5

Rumen acidosis
Cause
Pathophys
CS

Cause: grain overload

1. Too much carbs leads to overgrowth of strep. Bovis and other gram (+) bacteria
2. This lowers the rumen pH to 4.5
3. This increases lactic acid and lactobacilli overgrowth leading to more production of lactic acid
4. The goat cant metabolize D-lactic acid and lactic acidosis results

CS: rapid HR, depression, anorexia, fluid-filled rumen, scleral injection, diarrhea, staggering

6

Eimeria
CS
Dx
Tx

CS: diarrhea 2 - 3 weaks after weaning at 6 weeks of age
Dx: numerous Eimeria cysts in feces
Tx: feed coccidiostat preventative to kids at weaning

7

Grass tetany
Deficiency in what?
In what animals is it seen in?
What is the nutrient impt for?

Mg deficiency
Seen in lactating animals in the SPRING on well-fertilized pastures (green, legume pastures) high in N and K.

Mg is impt for nervous system function and many enzymatic reactions.

8

Nutritional Myodegeneration
Deficiency in what?
Common disease name
CS
Lesions
Dx
Prevention

Selenium and Vit E deficiency - affects heart and skeletal muscle
"White muscle disease"
CS: weakness, stiffness, some die
Lesions: pale white streaks in bundles of skeletal muscle of limbs and diaphragm
Dx: assess herd Se level: take whole blood from 20 random sheep
Prevention: supplement

9

Polioencephalomalacia
Deficiency in what nutrient?
How is it induced?
CS

Thiamine deficiency
Induced by grain feeding resulting in thiaminase-producing bacteria multiplying rumen and destroying thiamine causing polio

CS: strongest animals will get sick first

10

Copper deficiency
Species
Disease name
Cause
CS
Pathology
It is the most common cause of ______ in sheep?

Goats and sheep
"Enzootic ataxia"
Can be primary (not intaking enouch Cu) or secondary (diets high in other things like sulfur, Fe, Zn, etc that inhibit absorption of Cu)
CS: microcytic anemia, faded hair, heart failure, infertility, swollen joints, gastric ulcers, diarrhea, ADR
Pathology: dark, hemoglobin filled kidneys "gun metal blue"

The Most common cause of hemolytic anemia in sheep and causes an acute hemolytic crisis

11

What are the two neurologic diseases seen with Cu deficiency?

What are some CS seen with this?

1. Enzootic ataxia - seen in lambs 1 - 2m old
2. Swayback - seen congenitally

CS: ascending paralysis, incoordination, muscle atrophy, weakness.

12

CS of pneumothorax and collapsed lung

Absence of dorsal lung sounds
Audible ventral lung sounds

Dyspnea, tachypnea and normal temperature

13

What is the ringworm found in goats?

T. Verrucosum

14

What is the gestation length of a goat? Sheep?

goat: 150 days
Sheep: 152 days

Remember a pig's gestation length is 3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days = 115 days

15

Beta mannosidosis
Species
Breed
Pathophys
CS

Anglo-Nubian goats
A genetic deficiency where the plasma level of an enzyme is deficient (zero) that causes fatal neurological symptoms

CS: inability to stand since birth, short sternum, shortened and domed head with short curled ears, head tremor, carpal contractures, no suckle reflex

16

Dehorning
Can lead to what complications?
Which sinus is likely involved?

Sinusitis
Frontal sinus involvement

17

What sinus is involved in dental disease?

Maxillary sinus

18

Footrot
Agent
CS

What agent may be present secondarily?

Agent: Dichelobacter nodosus

CS: malodorous exudate and partial separation of the horn of the hoof from the skin.

Fusobacterium necrophorum may be present secondarily

19

Udder papillomas
Seen in which breed? What does it tend to develop into?
CS
Px

Seen in Saanen goats - tends to develop into SCC

CS: udder lesions that developed from warts, will see multiple in herd
Px: poor for dairy goats

20

Dermatophilus congolensis
Disease common name
CS
Dx
Tx

"Strawberry foot rot" (dermatophilus congolensis)
CS: crusting lesions around coronary band during mosit winters. Pink granulation tissue under crusts. Will see multiple in herd

Dx: cytology = branching "railroad tracks" of cocci bavteria. Affected by younger animals more severely

Tx: footbath, isolating or culling animals since its contagious

21

Mycoplasma mycoides
Species
CS in does and kids
Transmission
Treatment and px

Seen in goats
CS in does: mastitis (firm udders, brownish watery milk); febrile & depressed
CS in kids: fibrinopurulent polyarthritis, pneumonia, fever, unwilling to move
Transmission: transmammary and aerosol. Carrier goats maintain infection in herd. In adults, transmitted via external auditory meatus or direct inhalation
Treatment: tetracyclines
Px: complete recovery guarded. Culling may be recommended

22

Bluetongue
Species
Transmission
CS in pregnant ewes
CS in non-pregnant sheep

Sheep
Transmission: vectorbrone - culicoides gnat or small midge; sexually; transplacentally
CS in pregnant: lambs with hydranencephaly (cerebral hemispheres absent and replaced with sacs of fluid
CS in non-pregnant: generalized vasculitis, fever, edema of ears and face, loss of oral mucosa, leukopenia, *cyanosis of tongue*

23

Manheimia hemolytica
Species
What does it cause?
What is the common disease name?

Sheep
Causes enzootic pneumonia and gangrenous mastitis

"Blue bag"
(Vs "hardbag" which is caprine arthritis encephalomyelitis virus in goats)

24

Infectious KCS
When does it occur?
CS
Tx
Two organisms that cause it?

Occurs after severe weather - driving wind or snow
CS: lots of pregnant ewes suddenly become blind, photophobic, blepharospasm, epiphora, conjunctivits, keratitis, corneal ulceration
Tx: topical/systemic oxytetracycline
2 organisms: mycoplasma + chlamydia

25

Lepto
Species
CS of lambs
Dx

CS of lambs: acute hemolytic anemia, interstitial nephritis and tubular necrosis

Dx: immunoperoxidase staining of renal tissue

26

Big head disease
Species
Causative agents
How its contracted
CS
Tx
Control

Sheep
Clostridium novyi or C. Sordelli
Caused when the organism enters wounds sustained from head butting activities.
CS: swelling and edema of face, dull, depressed, pyrexic, congested mm
Tx: penicillin
Control: reduce head wounds and vaccinate with multivalent clostridial toxoids

27

What is the most significant cause of abortion in sheep in the US?

What are the other most common causes of abortion in sheep?

Campylobacter or vibriosis infection

C. Jejuni and C. Fetus

28

Tetanus
Most likely clinical sign in sheep
CS

Most likely clinical sign: trismus = spasm of the jaw muscles causing the mouth to remain tightly closed
aka "sardonic grin"

CS: stiffness or lameness in a limb ascending to generalized stiffness, raised tail head, saw-horse stance, rigid paralysis, pyrexia

29

What species is the carrier of malignant catarrahal fever?
How can it be controlled?

Carrier and reservoir = sheep

Controlled: thru genetic testing

30

Gangrenous mastitis
Caused by:
When is it likely to occur?
What is it associated with?
CS
Px:

Caused by: Manheimia & Staph aureus
Likely to occur during the first 3 months of lactation
Associated with poor milk supply due to ewe undernutrition and over vigorous suckling by lambs
CS: enlarged udder, cold, blue and black. Serosanguinous milk that is foul-smelling

Px: grave - gangrenous udder tissue eventually sloughs leaving a large granulating surface with superficial bacterial infection

31

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia
Causative agent
Common disease name
What does it cause?

Causative agent: lentivirus
Maedi-Visna virus

Causes a chronic, progressive condition that has no clinical signs as long as they dont develop secondary bacterial pneumonia.

(This is in contrast to pasteurella pneumonia, which tends to be more acute).

32

Larval hypersensitivity
Species
Disease name
What happens
CS
Dx
Tx

Sheep
Oestrus ovis infestation
Adult flies deposit larvae around nostrils; larvae migrate up nasal passages into turbinates and sinuses.
CS: nasal dsicharge and face rubbing
Dx: cytoogy = numerous eosinophils and mast cells
Tx: ivermectin

33

Most common urolith seen in sheep
why?

Calcium carbonate
Due to grazing over lush clover pastures that are high in Ca and oxalates

34

Ruptured bladder
CS
Clin path abnormalities

CS: straining to urinate, anorectic, depressed, no rumen motility, ammonia smelling breath, TPR is normal

Clin path abnormalities: HypoNa, hypoCl, hyperP, hemoconcentration, increased Crt

35

Pregnancy toxemia
Species
How it occurs

Sheep

Occurs in ewes in the last 2 - 4 weeks of gestation secondary to insufficient energy intake. The negative energy balance is unable to produce enough oxaloacetate to feed into the citrus cycle. This results in mobilization of fat and subsequent production of ketones.

36

Ovine Hereditary Chondrodysplasia
Common disease name
Seen in what breed
What does it cause

Spider lamb syndrome
Suffolk sheep
Causes severe carpus valgus chrondrodysplasia from an autosomal recessive trait

37

Organophosphate toxicity
What is the MOA
Tx

Acts by inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase causing muscarinic signs including hypersalivation, incoordination and bloat

Tx: high doses of atropine or pralidoxime (2-PAM)
in sheep use atropine

38

Whitten effect or buck effect

Introduction of a new male that induces sheep and goates to ovulate at the same time

39

Sheep keds
What do they look like?
How do you tell them apart?
What do they feed on?
CS

Wingless flies

Look a lot like ticks but you can tell them apart by counting legs:
Ticks - 8 legs
Sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) - 6 legs

Adults feed on blood

CS: pruritus, stained wool, potentially anemia

40

How many teeth do goats have?

32

41

How many teeth do sheep have?

32

42

What is the most common GI nematode in small ruminants?
CS
Tx

Haemonchus contortus
CS: failure to thrive, weight loss
Severe signs include: bottle jaw (pitting edema) and anemia

Tx: use drugs therapeutically, only de-worm animals with high worm burden

43

Estrus cycle of sheep?

17 days

44

Estrus cycle of goats?

21 days

45

What is a difference between sheep and goats with regards to CLs?

What is the significance?

Sheep are no longer CL dependent after 75 days into the gestation period; the placenta produces progesterone itself.

This means that you cannot use Lutalyse (PGF-2-alpha) to induce abortionin sheep past 75 days; while you still can in goats

46

What type of placenta do goats and sheep have/

Same as the cow --> a cotyledonary placenta

47

enterotoxemia aka pulpy kidney disease aka overeating disease
cause
pathophys
CS
Tx
Prevention

clostridium perfringens type D
heavy grain feeding or rich pasture; type D prototoxin elaborates and is activated - toxin increases intestinal permeability

CS: animals often found dead
Tx: penicillin
prevention: vaccinate

48

winter dysentery
agent
common history
CS
importance

bovine coronavirus
history: housed dairy cattle in the north during the winter, herd outbreak
CS: projectile diarrhea, mild resp. disease, drop in production
importance: economic loss, high morbidity, low mortality

49

what are the 3 common causes of calf diarrhea?

1. ETEC < 3 days: only causs diarrhea in calves (not horses)
2. sepsis < 5 days
3. rotavirus 5d - 2 weeks: most common VIRAL cause of diarrhea

50

cryptosporidium parvum
when is it shed?

coccidian parasite
shed from 5 - 15 days
high morbidity
zoonotic

51

coccidiosis

Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii
seen in older cattle during the summer and fall

52

Moniezia eggs
shape
what type of worm are they?
describe lifecycle
pathogenic?

they are rectangular or square in shape
they are a tapeworm
their lifecycle involves oribatid mites that live in teh soil and are ingested by the host.

they are typicaly nonpathogenic but may cause intestinal stasis

53

Clostiridum hemolyticum or Clostridial novyi type D
time of year
CS
clin path
pathophys

summer can cause acute death
CS: icteric, port wine colored urine, bloody diarrhea, ataxic, petechiation, blank stares
clin path: anemia, asoztemia, hyperbilirubin
infection of the liver by migrating flukes (fasciola hepatica) result in anaerobic tracks that allow clostridium to bloom and cause disease

54

what age group gets sick with anaplasma marginale?

adults; especially if they just travelled and are new to the herd

55

ostertagia
CS
lesions

CS: acute watery diarrhea, petechia
lesions: worms and petechia in abomasum, the wall of the abomasum will look like "moroccan leather" - a nodular "cobblestone" appearance that is worst in the fundus

56

corynebacterium renale
what it does
CS

cause of pyelonephritis in post-partum cows from bacteria entering thru the urethra
CS: renal swelling and pain (grinding teeth) fever, loss of appetite

57

what is the appropriate minimum egg count at which ou should plan to deworm calves?

300 eggs per gram of feces

58

white muscle disease

Vit E & Selenium deficiency
has 2 forms: an acute cardiac form in which the animals just show up dead, or a skeletal muscle form: dyspnea, frothy nasal discharge
lesions: bilaterally symmetric muscular atrophy, skeletal muscle is pale and dry with white streaks. calves can have trouble getting up and have swollen, hard, painful muscle

59

maple syrup disease
enzyme deficiency of what?

genetic disorders of spongiform changes in Hereford and poled shorthorn calves. caused by a deficiency of the enzyme: branched-chain ketoacid decarboxylase

60

what day of gestation can pregnancy be confirmed on US?

28

61

at what point in gestation can you feel placentomes and bilateral uterine artery fremitus?

at least 7 months

62

hydrops allantois (hydroallantois)

disorder of placenta
px for fetus and fertility of the cow is poor