Flashcards in Pigs Deck (63):
CS: piglets get anorexia, ataxia, convulsions, hypersalivation, nystagmus and seizures, and death
Mortality: can reach 100% in naive populations
Geography: FAD - south america, europe and asia
Younger pigs more severely affected
CS: anemia, fever, icterus, reproductive failure
Transmission: vectorborne biting insects
Treatment: tetracyclines (no vax available)
Serotypes for salmonella
Dubin and Enteriditis
Age: all ages susceptible but young and growing pigs more severely affected
CS: round papules, pustules and vesicles and scabs on ventral abdomen
Transmission: biting insects, particularly lice
Treatment: none necessary unless secondarily infected in which case broad-spec abx may be used
what does Parvovirus cause?
Stillborns and mummies
What 3 diseases commonly cause abortions in pigs?
What does Brucella suis commonly cause in pigs?
NOT abortions and NOT mummies
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP)
What are common indications of APP?
What is the pathophys of APP?
Common indications: acute outbreak of sudden death in a herd over a span of a couple days - blood tinged nasal discharge, coughing
Virulence of APP is due to exotoxin production by the bacteria which causes vasculitis and hemolysis, especially in the lungs
Tx with ceftiofur and tulathromycin
If you see a pig presenting with lameness what 4 diseases should you immediately think of?
1. Erysipelothrix (diamond skin disease)
2. Haemphilus parasuis (glasser's)
3. Streptococcous suis
4. Mycoplasma hyorhinis
what is the treatment for Pseudorabies?
Depopulation of the herd
What are the clinical signs of pseudorabies in pigs < 10 weeks old?
Primarily respiratory: sneezing, nasal discharge and coughing
What are the CS of pseudorabies in pigs >10w old?
Respiratory and CNS signs
What are the CS in pseudorabies < 3 weeks old?
Fever, anorexia, vomiting, blindness, convulsions and other neuro signs
What is the most common mycobacterium cause of TB in swine in the US?
What type of disease is it? (Bacterial, viral, etc)
CS of neonates, weaned pigs, gestating sows and boars?
Neonate CS: diarrhea and recurrent fevers
Weaned CS: anorexic, cough, dyspnea ("thumps"), purple ear tips and tails due to vasculitis
Gestating sows: abortions, mummies and early embryonic death
Boars: infertility due to interference with spermatogenesis
Treatment: depop or closing the herd until titers are done
Describe teh classic clinical presentation of a swine influenza outbreak
High fevers and nasal discharge that can spread thru up to 80% of a herd in 3 days
Proliferative hemorraghic Enteritis (PHE)
Most consistent sign
Similar to what disease in ruminants?
Caused by: Lawsonia Intracellularis
Pathognomonic lesion: red clotted blood in the small intestine and spiral colon (no gross thickening of intestinal mucosa)
Age: weaned and older pigs
CS: soft yellow diarrhea, hemorrhagic diarrhea, lost weight, lethargy
Most consistent sign: weight loss
Similar to johne's disease in ruminants!
Common causes of obstruction in pigs and treatment options
1. Peach pits lodged in jejunum of pot bellied pigs
2. Fibrous rings around spiral colon or SI
3. Intussusception from strongyle (oesophagostomum) infections
Treatment: surgery and/or deworming for rest of herd
What worm is this?
What lesion is most commonly seen?
Will see "milk spots" on the liver - subcapsular white spots on the liver
What dermatophyte is most commonly associatd with ringworm in the pig?
Most common lesion
Intussusceptions and/or intestinal obstruction
CS: vomiting is most common clinical sign, tachycardia, restless, colic, will have no stool
How is it most commonly contracted?
How is it prevented?
What is important fact to remember about this worm?
Contracted in pigs thru ingesting rodents, raw garbage or cannibalism of infected meat
Prevention: prevent from cannibalizing the dead or eating rodents and cooking garbage fed to them
Impt to remember: this is a zoonotic worm; humans get it from eating undercooked pork
What is this worm commonly called?
What are the two forms of this disease and in what species do they occur?
Who is IH?
Describe the lifecycle
Taeniasis - adult tapeworms; occurs in ppl
Cysticercosis - larval form encysted in skeletal muscle; occurs in pigs though it can occur in humans too and cause disease
1. Pigs ingest infected human feces containing eggs or onchospheres
2. Cysticerci (larva) encyst in the skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle of the pig. Rarely ever causes CS in pigs
3. Humans ingest inadequately cooked pork containing the cysticerci which then evaginate and attach to the human SI and develop into adult tapeworms. This is the only way these tapeworms can complete their lifecycle.
4. The adults shed eggs which must also be ingested in cyst form in order to complete their lifecycle
What type of worm is this?
What is the MC of transmission?
Where do they reside in their host?
Threadworm of pigs
They reside in the SI of suckling pigs
CS: typically none in light infections but in heavy infections can see diarrhea, anemia, emaciation and even death
Dx: fecal flotation, intestinal mucosal scraping or necropsy
Tx: benzimidazoles and ivermectin
What are the clinical signs of Vitamin A deficiency and in what age range?
What should tip you off that this is likely a Vit a defiency?
What can it cause in sows?
Age range: young grower pigs
CS: head tilt, incoordination, reduced weight gain, weak rear limbs, but normal vital signs (this should tip you off to a nutritional deficiency)
The big tip off for Vit A deficiency in pigs is middle ear infections
In sows, can cause embryonic mortality and congenital defects in offspring
What is the most effective way of syncrhonizing lactating pigs?
What is the result?
What is the key?
Batch wean at 3 - 4 weeks
Results in estrus 4 - 6 days later.
The key is to stop the sow from lactating bc she will not ovulate as long as she is lactating.
What are the most common causes of aural hematomas?
Bites from pen mates
Violent head shaking associated with foreign debris or ectoparasites
Characterized by what?
Seen in pigs 3 - 14 weeks old
Characterized by raised circular lesions on ventral abdomen
- may be hereditary
Treatment: none; typically resolves on its own
Ingunial hernias: seen most often in what type of pig? How are they acquired?
Seen most often in males, particularly after castration
They are heritable
In what type of pigs are umbilical hernias most often seen
They are seen in both male and females but slightly more common in females
What two types of hernias are most common in pigs?
Inguinal and umbilical
What age are they seen?
What are characteristic lesions?
Seen in young, rapidly-growing pigs
Characteristic lesions: ulcerations or defects in articular cartilage that is often bilateral and symmetric
Common sites: medial femoral head, glenoid of scapula, humeral head, humeral condyle, distal ulna and lumbar vertebrae
Greasy pig disease
Staphylococcal hyicus (gram + cocci)
Affects young pigs (5 - 60 days); older subclinical carriers act as reservior
CS: thickened, red-spotted skin, macules around eyes, lips, nose, ears; exudation of serum/sebum; erosions of coronary band and heel
Treatment: penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, TMS, tylosin
Control: clip needle teeth of newborns
Gestation period of a pig
3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days (114 days)
What type of estrous period does a pig have?
How long is the estrus cycle in a pig?
What type of placenta does a pig have?
Epitheliochorial and diffuse
Age most susceptible
1 - 3 weeks
Pathogen: rotavirus, non-enveloped; dirty farrowing crates impt reservoir
CS: malabsortive diarrhea
Dx: fecal ph test (acidic), feces with bubbles, bloodwork, hte usual (PCR, ELISA, IFA, etc)
Tx: vaccinate - autogeneous or commercial, clean environment
Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)
- similar to what virus that has 100% mortality in piglets?
Age: any age but mostly 1 - 2 weeks
Pagthogen: cronoavirus, enveloped (ie less durable)
CS: malabsorptive diarrhea, more severe than rotavirus with more fatalities, will often vomit early in course of disease
Dx: feces pH test (acidic), bloodwork, necropsy (transparent gut wall!!)
Tx: vax - commercial killed, MLV, autogenous of minced intestines of dead piglets fed to sows 2 weeks before farrowing
Age: 1 - 5 days
Pathogen: clostridial perfringens type C
CS: necrosis of mucosa, weak down piglets crushed, hemorrhagic inflammatory diarrhea, almost 100% fatality, happens in hours
Dx: necropsy: diffuse or segmental lesion, bloody peritoneal and thoracic fluid
Tx: none - can try penicillin, antitoxin, fluids, etc.
Control: vaccinate sows then boost 2 - 3 weeks pre-farrowing
Iron deficiency anemia
Seen in neonates
CS: anemia, sharp sudeen thump breathing
Dx: microcytic, hypochromic anemia (Cu deficiency rule out)
ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. Coli)
Age: weaning due to no secretory IgA in gut
Pathogen: enterotoxigenic E. Coli (K88) verotoxin positive F18
Disease name: edema disease
CS: alkaline osmotic diarrhea in SI and LI, eyelid edema, laryngeal eema, ataxia, forelimb paresis
Dx: fecal gram stain (gram neg. rods), bloodwork, IFA & PCR
Age: nursery pigs; carrier sows
CS: polyserositis ("ill-thrift and death due to ascites, peritonitis), meningitis, fever, seizures, paddling, polyarthritis
Dx: gram stain of exudate (gram + cocci), aerobic culture on blood agar
Tx: ampicillin, ceftiofur, PPG, and TMS
Pathogen; whats impt to remember?
Age: nursery pigs most common
Pathogen: sarcoptes scabei var suis
**most economically impt ectoparasite in swine!!**
CS: severe pruritus, hyperkeratosis, scabby lesions
Dx: deep skin scrapes
Tx: avermectin injectables every 1 - 2 weeks for 3 treatments
What is it?
Aka lice! Very large, sucking lice
Age: nursery pigs
CS: less pruritic than mange
Dx: visual inspection
Tx: avermectins, malathion
Diamond skin disease
Pathogne: gram (+) rod secretes exotoxins that cause vasculitis
CS: well demarcated cutaneous lesions, arthritis, endocarditis, sloughing of ears
Dx: skin lesions, petechiae, septic arthritis, endocarditis
Control: ubiquitous organism so vax required for ALL pigs (even pets)
Age: >2months, pigs reared indoors with no access to soil
CS: pigs raised indoors, pigs fed soybean phytic acid, high Ca diets, thick scales and crusts in esophagus
Dx: serum of liver Zn with blue top tube, skin biopsy
Tx: dietary zn
Vit E / Selenium deficiency
Mulberry heart disease
CS: mulberry heart, white muscle hepatic necrosis
Dx: serum test
Tx: give Se and Vit E
Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome
Age: all ages of naive herd
Pathogen: enveloped RNA virus; high affinity for macs
CS: late term abortion, anorexia, fever, coughin, blue ears in sows & gilts, respiratory dz of adults is uncommon
Control: vax MLV in nonpregnant sows; expose gilts to older sows at least 60 days prior to breeding
Pathogen: Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (gram - spiral shaped bacteria)
Transmitted: wildlife; very hardy; lives in manure
CS: proliferates in cecum/ LI; mucoid hemorrhagic diarrhea with fibrin, poor BCS
Dx: culture and PCR on feces, only in LI
Tx: several abx (though not too effective)
Age at risk
What type of worm is it?
Age: zoonotic! Grower/finisher
CS: mucoid hemorrhagic diarrhea
Dx: fecal floats (sporadic egg layer; so if neg., retest)
Tx: atgard, fenbendazole, thiobendazole (NOT ivermectin!)
Virus type: orthomyxovirus, influenza type A
CS: coughing like barking dogs, fever, conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, sneezing, low mortality
Dx: usual (virus isoltaion, PCR, etc), necropsy - superimposed bacterial pneumonia common
Tx: abx to prevent 2ndary bacterial infection, vax
CS: concurrent with other resp. Pathogens
Dx: necropsy - cranioventral lung lobes w/ grey/purple lobules
Tx: abx in feed - macrolides, tetracyclines, lincosamides (NO beta lactams)
Control: vax, ventilation
Pathogen: bordetella bronchiseptica & pasteurella multocida type D
CS: sneezing, nasal discharge, epiphora, lysis of nasal turbinates, non-progressive
Necropsy: destroyed nasal turbinates
Tx: cured animals will be carriers - may want to depop carriers
Vaccinate sows 2 doses in late gestation
What to do
At risk: pigs fed uncooked infected fish (sea lions?)
CS: fever, vesicles on snout, feet, mammary and oral cavity
Must report in 24 hours bc it looks like FMD!
Post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome
At risk age
Pathogen: porcine circovirus type 2 (requires 2ndary infection to cause CS)
Age: post weaning and grower finisher
CS: progressive wasting, LN enlargement, patchy dermatitis, high case fatality
Dx: lymphopenia, cutaneous vasculitis; necropsy - kidney enlargement and mutlifocal hemorrhagic areas
What causes it?
Toxic to what?
Ochratoxin and citrinin
What causes it?
Toxic to what?
Aspergillus and pencillium
Caused by what?
Caused by Fusarium
Does what: estrogen bioactivity educed fertility
From moldy corn
Porcine Stress Syndrome and malignant hyperthermia
CS of PSS
CS of malignant hyperthermia
Pathophys: mutation of Ca channel in skeletal muscle that leads to Ca leakage
CS of PSS: back muscle necrosis, soft pale exudative pork
CS of hyperthermia: disseminated vasoconstriction associatd with anesthetic
At risk: heavily muscled animals, anesthesia can trigger it, hampshire breed
Tx: Ca channel blockers: dantrolene
Classical swine fever
Pathogen: pestivirus; highly contagious
Transmission: ingesting uncooked garbage containing raw pork
CS: fever, profuse ocular discharge, goose stepping ataxia, V/D, death after 2 - 3 weeks
Necropsy: peteichae on kidney, circumscribed ulcers in LI, splenic infarcts
African swine fever
CS: petechiae on skin, endothelial damage
Necropsy: hemorrhagic liver, splenomegaly, hemorrhagic mesenteric LN