Flashcards in Exotics and Pocket Pets Deck (138):
Vitamin A deficiency
bird nutritional disease (one of the most common)
- differentiates epithelial cells and immune fxn
- CS: blunted choanal papillae (choanae = slit on roof of mouth), *white plaques in oral cavity*, poor skin, hyperkeratosis, submandibular abscesses (submandibular keratin cysts) and squamous neoplasia
bird nutrition disease (most common mineral difficiency)
- seed diets will be low in Ca
- Conures and African Grays are susceptible
- provide mineral blocks and food like cabbage, kale, watercress, oyster shell or "cuttlebone"
essential amino acid deficiency
- seed diets, grains, fruits and veggies contain protein of low biologic value
- cocaktoo are susceptible
- CS: anemia, decreased muscle mass
what birds are predisposed to excessive dietary fat?
what can it lead to?
macaws, amazons, cockatiels, budgies
- can lead to hepatic lipidosis and development of xanthomas or lipomas
what happens when diets have excessive sugar in birds?
leads to anaerobic intestinal environment that promotes growth of *clostridium perfringens* and results in life-threatening infection
what is dangerous about teflon vapor
leads to fluid accumulation and inhibits gas exchange in birds - can kill them in minutes
avocado toxicity in birds
- toxic agent
- what birds are esp. susceptible?
- CS: heart failure, resp. compromise from myocardial damage
lead causes what in birds?
acute weakness, anorexia and regurge
zinc causes what in birds?
depression, lameness, regurge, behavior change
what does caffeine cause in birds?
vomiting, hyperactivity, tremors, seizures
what is the only anesthetic FDA approved to be use in fish?
what is a hob
what is a jill
what is a kit
what is the estrus cycle in ferrets
what type of ovulation do ferrets undergo?
what happens if a ferret is not bred during estrus?
she may undergo estrogen toxicity
CS: pale mm, posterior paresis, inappetance, melena, alopecia, swollen vulva
dx: PCV, CBC, platelet count
tx: induce ovulation with HCG, OVH, breed
what is the gestation period of a ferret?
41 - 42 days
what are some unusual anatomic variants in ferrets?
splenomegaly is common
they have a large pancreast compared to other carnivores
- caused by canine distemper (they CANNOT get canine parvo)
- CS: anorexia, mucopurulent ocular/nasal discharge, hyperkeratotic footbads
- vax w/ purevax ferret distemper - NOT the canine distemper vax!
Aleutian disease virus or aleutian mink disease (ADV)
- virus type
- CS: chronic progressive wasting disease*, rear limb paralysis, tremors, urinary incontinence, tarry feces
- no vax available
human influenza virus in ferrets
- virus type
- transmission: resp. discharge
- CS: lethargy, fever, anorexia, and oculonasal discharge
- Tx: symptomatic
rabies vax in ferrets
use ones specifically made for ferrets
epizootic catarrhal enteritis in ferrets
- common name
- when is it diagnosed
= green slime disease!
- dx following new introduction of ferret into a new place
- CS: dark green slimy diarrhea, loss of appetite, lethargy
what parasites will you see in ferrets? (5)
2. sarcoptes scabei
can ferrets get HW?
what is a possible cause of alopecia in ferrets?
what zoonotic diseases should you think about in ferrets?
scabies, rignworm, rabies, bacterial pathogens (like salmonella)
hyperadrenocorticism or hyperestrogenism (adrenal associated tumor) in ferrets
- what should you know about the name?
- secondary to what?
- most effective tx
- alternative tx
its called ferret hyperadrenocorticism, but it is NOT like canine cushings - it's due to elevated *ESTROGEN* levels
- secondary to hyperestrogenism due to adrenal tumor
- CS: anemia, bone marrow suppression, muscle wasting, posterior weakness and lethargy and pruritus! (which can be difficult to rule/out skin stuff)
- most effective tx: adrenalectomy
- alternative tx: lupron, an estrogen reducing GnRH
Insulinoma in ferrets
- what organ derived from what cells
- secrete what hormone resulting in what?
- what are most common CS
- what diagnostic should you use?
- how do you tx it?
- tumor of pancreas derived from beta cells secreting insulin
- secrete tons of insulin resulting in *hypoglycemia*
- CS: hypoglycemia and neuro signs
- diagnostic: whipple's triad: 1. low fasting glucose level 2. neuro signs typical of hypoglycemia 3. relief of symptoms with administration of glucose
- tx: prednisone and diazoxide and diet high in protein and low carb
LSA in ferrets - 2 forms what are they?
1. juvenile LSA: <2 years old
2. adult LSA: > 4 years old
other than adrenal tumors, insulinomas, and LSAs, what other form of neoplasia do ferrrets get? and what kind are they?
what CS will they be associated with?
they also get MCT
- cutaneous form
- may be associated with pruritus and cause self-excoriation
- other common names
- how is it transmitted
- whats impt to remember about this dz
- avian chlamydiosis or parrot fever or ornithosis or chlamydia psittaci
- its a bacteria shed in feces and respiratory discharges: ingestion and inhalation are primary routes of infection
- latent carriers are hard to id - the dz is ZOONOTIC and REPORTABLE
- gold standard dx
- CS: nasal/ocular discharge, infraorbital swelling, *resp difficulty*, diarrhea
- dx: increased WBC and liver values (AST, ALT, LDH), PCR blood, feces, resp. fluids
- gold standard dx: culture!
- tx: doxycycline
Psittacine Beak and Feather disease
- virus type
- high morbidity an dmortality
- transmitted: contact with contaminated feathers most common, but fecal&oral also possible
Psittacine Beak and feather disease
- CS: feather loss, beak defects
- dx: PCR of whole blood, histo (inclusion bodies
- tx: none, remove from flock
Proventircular Diltation disease
- other common names
- which birds are most susceptible
- psittacine wasting disease, macaw wasting disease
- avian borna virus
- macaws, cocaktoos and conures most susceptible
- transmission: fecal/oral
Proventricular diltation disease
- classic sign
- CS: nerve supply to proventriculus, ventriculus and SI destroyed. regurge, vomiting, *passage of undigested food*, ataxia, seizures
- classic sign: *severely dilated thin wall of proventriculus seen on radiograph*
- dx: histo: lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis; necropsy: dilated GI tract
- tx: supportive - NSAIDs
- seen in what type of bird?
- seen in psittacines only
- transmission: direct contact with infected feces, ocular/nasal discharge. can have carriers
- dx: important sign
- CS: birds with sudden death are highly suspect, *green urates* (indicates liver damage), neuro signs, anorexia, diarrhea
- dx: PCR of blood & cloacal swab, histopath - hepatic inclusion bodies
- dx important: consider Pacheco's dz in any psittacine that dies suddenly with no previous signs of illness
- tx: Acyclovir sometimes effective but causes kidney damage
- transmission: latent carrier state is common, direct contact with infected material, vertically spread via eggs
- CS: high mortality in young psittacine birds, regurge, diarrhea, feather abnormalities, petechiae
- dx: histopath: viral intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver, kidney, spleen, heart and feather follicles
what is important to know about light exposure in iguanas?
they need UV-A and UV-B light.
UV-A = visualization adn behavior
UV-B = Vit D & Ca metabolism
what is the nasal salt gland in an iguana?
- it helps conserve water
- produces white powder on nose which is normal
what is unique about the iguana heart?
it only has 1 ventricle (3-chambered)
where do you collect blood from an iguana?
the tail vein (ventral aspect of tail)
what is important to realize about the iguana diet?
they are obligate herbivores
they must maintain a Ca:P of 2:1
what zoonotic fecal-organisms can iguanas harbor?
salmonella, campylobacter, klebsiella, aeromonas and cryposporidia (protozoal)
what is metabolic bone disease in igunas due to? (imbalance of what nutrients)?
imbalance of Vitamin D, Ca and P
what are some causes of metabolic bone disease?
chronic kidney disease (can cause renal metabolic bone disease)
what are CS of metabolic bone disease?
- boney protuberances in long bones
- softening of bones
- muscle weakness, lethargy and reluctance to move
how do you treat metabolic bone disease?
- CA supplementation
- provide proper UV light
- also called what?
- often due to what?
- due to poor husbandry
- chronic trauma/excoriations to rostrum from persistent rubbing on caging materials
- CS: plaque formation, erythema of gingiva, increased salivation
- what does it mean?
means abnormal shedding (iguanas normally shed skin in pieces as opposed to snakes which shed in one piece)
- CS: dry, flaky patches of dead skin
- cause: improper humidity
- tx: fix humidity
egg binding (dystocias) in iguanas - when is this seen?
- in first-time breeding females
- females bearing infertile clutches
what are some possible reasons for egg binding in iguanas?
- reproductive tract obstruction
- abnormal egg shape
- malformed pelvic canal
- poor husbandry, malnutrition, improper nesting, absence of opposite sex, lack of exercise, poor physical condition
what are CS of egg binding in iguanas?
- evidence of straining
- prolapse of cloacal or reproductive tissues
how do you treat egg binding in iguanas?
- rule out obstruction of oviduct first
- physical manipulation
- oxytocin or arginine asotocin
- Ca gluconate
ivermectin is toxic to what reptile?
articular gout in reptiles
- how does it occur?
- occurrs when fed excessive protein in diet
- uric acid builds up and is deposited in joints
what will articular gout look like on necropsy of a lizard?
white chalky nodules in multiple joints as well as pinpoint white foci in kidneys
plasmodium in birds
- what is it
- how is it transmitted
intra-RBC parasite of birds
- nucleus displaced to periphery
- transmitted by mosquitos
how many air sacs do birds have?
what is unique about their trahceal rings?
9 air sacs
their tracheal rings are complete
what vitamin are guinea pigs often deficient in?
leads to scurvy
it is necessary for collagen synthesis (healthy hair, teeth, etc)
deficiency in Vitamin C leads to what?
- leads to deficiencies in what
- what species is it common in?
causes deficiencies in collagen and will cause oral petechia, loose teeth and rough hair coat.
commonly seen in guinea pigs
how should pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in eggs (birds) be treated?
injection of piperacillin
candida, hypovitaminosis A and trichomoniasis all result in what clinical sign?
how do you euthanize a bird?
give ISO via facemask then once anesthetized, give IV pentobarbital
what is the most common GI tumor of birds?
what species is it most often seen in?
what will it look like?
- cloacal papilloma
- seen msot often in amazons and macaws
- will have small fleshy proliferations that can lead to cloacal prolapse
- what are they?
whaere are they most common
- aka ingrown hair - causes nasty cheesy stuff around a hair follicle
- common on primary feathers of hte wing
- tx: surgical removal of feather follicle
what is the middle (shaft) of the feather of a bird called?
what is a potentially fatal disease to humans that can be transmitted by old world monkeys, esp. Macaques?
Herpes simiae (a herpes B virus)
what strain of herpes do humans carry that can be fatal to old world monkeys? what does it cause to them?
herpes simplex virus
causes fatal encephalitis
what is another word for goiter and what causes it in birds?
aka "thyroid hyperplasia"
caused by iodine deficiency
common isolate in infectious stomatitis in turtles, snakes and lizards?
aeromonas and pseudomonas
cs: petechiation and caseous material build up in mouth
whats required for chinchilla health
dust baths every 1 - 2 days
what is haemoproteus?
blood-borne parasite seen in birds the partially encircle the nucleus
an old budgerigar recently had a cere color change from blue to brown. what is the dx?
sertoli cell tumor
what are possible sequelae to Ca, P and vitamin D imbalance in birds?
osteoporosis, acute hypoCa (seizures), rickets, splayleg, egg binding
what does too much vitamin D in birds cause?
mineralization in tissues, esp the kidneys
what is Chrysanthemum disease?
a genetic disorder in budgerigars that makes them grow a ton of feathers and look like feather dusters
what is USDA responsible for?
meat and poultry PRODUCTS, including eggs
what does FDA regulate?
foods, food labels, vet drugs and SEAFOOD
what does EPA regulate?
pesticides and water standards
mammary neoplasias in RATS
- benign fibroadenomas that can occur ANYWHEREA
mammary tumors in mice
often anaplastic and invasive
what are blood feathers?
what should you do when they break?
blood feathers aka "pin feathers" are new feathers starting to grow and have a large blood supply.
pull the blood feather if it is broken using a hemostat gripped close to the skin and pulled steadily and firmly
where does the esophagus lie in a bird?
on the right side of the neck
the correct daily water requirement for a rabbit is
120ml/kg (a lot more than a dog or cat)
what is proliferative bowel disease in ferrets caused by and how is it treated?
treat w/ chloramphenicol
what predisposes snakes and lizards to scale rot or ulcerative dermatitis?
fecal contaminated bedding
how is cryptosporidiosis treated in reptiles?
there is no treatment
what bone do you place catheters in birds?
the ulna (a non-pneumatic bone)
humerus and femur are pneumatic so cant use them
top differential for regurge in snakes?
inclusion body disease
what is it?
iron storage disease - too much iron accumulates in liver and other organs
what is a rhamphotheca?
the thin horny sheath of keratin that covers the boney beak in birs
what is a choana?
the slit on the roof of the mouth in birds - its a passageway for air from nasal respiratory system into oral cavity
murine respiratory mycoplasmosis
common chronic disease in rats of inflammation of respiratory tract and middle ear
diabetes mellitus in birds
- CS similar to other animals: hyperglycemia, glucosuria and PU/PD
- tx: insulin jections and oral medications like glipizide
what abx cannot be given to a rabbit?
erythromycin (anything with predominant gram + spectrum since they are lagamoprhs)
birds get exocrine pancreatic insuffiency
- CS: weight loss, pale voluminous droppings with "popcorn" appearance
- tx: diet supplemented with pancreatic enzymes
what cells in birds contain nuclei?
all of them - heterophils (WBC), RBC, platelets, etc.
whirling disease (fish)
agent is Myxobolus (aka Myxosoma) cerebralis which is a myxosporean parasite of salmonid fish.
- characterized by spores in cartilage
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (fish)
protozoal parasite that causes white spots on gills and skin with erratic behavior
hole in the head disease (fish)
piting like lesions on head and lateral line
gill rot (fish)
fungal dz - Branchiomyces
CS: resp distress due to thrombosis to the gills
Pasteurella multocida in RABBITS
- CS: mucopurulent nasal discharge and sneezing are most common.
but it can cause many other signs: enzootic pneumonia, otitis, conjunctivitis, meningitis, encephalitis, repro tract infections, abscesses and septicemia.
how much blood can you take from a bird?
1% of their body weight (converting gms to mls)
so if a bird is 100grams, 1% of 100= 1ml
what does it cause in rats?
causes pseudotuberculosis in rats
CS: dyspnea, oculonasal discharge, rough hair coat
Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) rabbits
causes neuro and renal disease. it directly infects the lenses of rabbits and causes phacoclastic cataracts (it can break thru the lens capsule) and uveitis
what 3 abx are used most commonly in rodents?
what disease do rabbits carry that are fatal to guinea pigs and is why they should not be housed together
rabbits carry bordatella bronchiseptica which causes primary resp. dz in guinea pigs
most bladder stones in rabbits are
what should progressive, unilateral paresis in birds make you suspicious of?
- due to pressure exerted on sciatic nerve by a renal tumor
Cnemidocoptes infestations in birds
lead to honeycomb-like beak
articular gout in a bird
- what will cytology show?
- how is it treated?
presents with shifting leg lameness and inability to bend toes
- cytology shows spindle-shaped crystals
- treat with allopurinol therapy
hypovitaminosis A in turtles
CS: eyelid edema, resp disease, renal disease (squamous metaplasia of renal tubules blocking collecting ducts), squamous metaplasia of epithelium and secondary infections to eyes, skin and resp system
Tyzzer's disease in mice
CS: diarrhea, kyphosis, poor haircoat
lesions: hepatic necrosis and inflammation of ileum
what hormone will stop a bird from laying eggs?
Leuprolide acetate (Lupron)
benign growths composed of lipids and cholesterol accumulations (kind of like lipomas)
- most prevalent in cockatiels, budgies and cockatoos
- cytology shows macrophagic inflammation w/ multi-nucleated giant cells and cholesterol clefts
most common cause of seizures in the adult ferret?
secondary to insulinoma
what is unique about rabbit teeth?
they are open-rooted and continously growing
lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM)
if you see this, euthanize the animal. its an RNA arena virus and is zoonotic
what is important to remember about reptiles regarding renal-portal system?
the blood in the caudal half of their body passes thru the kidneys before returning to the heart.
so administration of nephrotoxic drugs (like gentamicin) should not be administered in the caudal half of the body
nutritional disease common to guinea pigs
- CS: oral petechia, loose teeth
accumulation of lipids in skin of birds
- CS: focal feather loss, lesion that is thick, yellow and friable
- macrophagic inflammatory response, with multinucleated giant cells and cholesterol crystals observed cytologically.
a budgerigar that is:
- sitting on floor of cate
- progressive leg lameness
- weight loss
what is the dx?
most common dx in budgerigars that are lame and have weight loss
most common signs of renal failure in an iguana?
episcleral injection, swelling of the pharyngeal region, and pain on palpation of the abdomen
what is the ear mite in rabbits?
how do you tx it?
ivermectin or selamectin
natural host of Francisella tularensis?
rabbits and rodents
this is a zoonotic bacteria
what clin path is most liver specific in birds?
Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli
the sarptoic mange for camels
CS: losing hair around head, neck and progresses down body, some swollen areas, wrinkling of skin, intense pruritus
what abx shouldnt be used in rabbits/
anything w/ gram + spectrum - erythromycin
male is what color
female is what color?
male = green
female = red
Candida albicans in birds
- most common in young birds
- infects crop mucosa
- can cause crop stasis
proliferative bowel disease in ferrets
- CS: prolapsed rectum, chronic diarrhea, weight loss w/ green stool containing mucus, thickened intestine and enlarged mesenteric LN
Mycoplasma pulmonis. in rats is associated iwth what
associated with cilia-associated respiratory bacillus infection
rabbits that dont get spayed can get what neoplasia?