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1

Vitamin A deficiency

bird nutritional disease (one of the most common)
- differentiates epithelial cells and immune fxn
- CS: blunted choanal papillae (choanae = slit on roof of mouth), *white plaques in oral cavity*, poor skin, hyperkeratosis, submandibular abscesses (submandibular keratin cysts) and squamous neoplasia

2

Ca deficiency

bird nutrition disease (most common mineral difficiency)
- seed diets will be low in Ca
- Conures and African Grays are susceptible
- provide mineral blocks and food like cabbage, kale, watercress, oyster shell or "cuttlebone"

3

essential amino acid deficiency

- seed diets, grains, fruits and veggies contain protein of low biologic value
- cocaktoo are susceptible
- CS: anemia, decreased muscle mass

4

what birds are predisposed to excessive dietary fat?
what can it lead to?

macaws, amazons, cockatiels, budgies
- can lead to hepatic lipidosis and development of xanthomas or lipomas

5

what happens when diets have excessive sugar in birds?

leads to anaerobic intestinal environment that promotes growth of *clostridium perfringens* and results in life-threatening infection

6

what is dangerous about teflon vapor

leads to fluid accumulation and inhibits gas exchange in birds - can kill them in minutes

7

avocado toxicity in birds
- toxic agent
- CS
- what birds are esp. susceptible?

- persin
- CS: heart failure, resp. compromise from myocardial damage
- budgerigars

8

lead causes what in birds?

acute weakness, anorexia and regurge

9

zinc causes what in birds?

depression, lameness, regurge, behavior change

10

what does caffeine cause in birds?

vomiting, hyperactivity, tremors, seizures

11

what is the only anesthetic FDA approved to be use in fish?

tricaine methanesulfonate

12

what is a hob

male ferret

13

what is a jill

female ferret

14

what is a kit

baby ferret

15

what is the estrus cycle in ferrets

seasonally polyestrus

16

what type of ovulation do ferrets undergo?

induced ovulation

17

what happens if a ferret is not bred during estrus?
CS
Dx
tx

she may undergo estrogen toxicity
CS: pale mm, posterior paresis, inappetance, melena, alopecia, swollen vulva
dx: PCV, CBC, platelet count
tx: induce ovulation with HCG, OVH, breed

18

what is the gestation period of a ferret?

41 - 42 days

19

what are some unusual anatomic variants in ferrets?

splenomegaly is common
they have a large pancreast compared to other carnivores

20

ferret distemper
CS
control

- caused by canine distemper (they CANNOT get canine parvo)
- CS: anorexia, mucopurulent ocular/nasal discharge, hyperkeratotic footbads
- vax w/ purevax ferret distemper - NOT the canine distemper vax!

21

Aleutian disease virus or aleutian mink disease (ADV)
- virus type
- CS

- parvovirus
- CS: chronic progressive wasting disease*, rear limb paralysis, tremors, urinary incontinence, tarry feces
- no vax available

22

human influenza virus in ferrets
- virus type
- transmission
- CS
- tx

- orthomyxovirus
- transmission: resp. discharge
- CS: lethargy, fever, anorexia, and oculonasal discharge
- Tx: symptomatic

23

rabies vax in ferrets

use ones specifically made for ferrets

24

epizootic catarrhal enteritis in ferrets
- common name
- when is it diagnosed
- CS

= green slime disease!
- dx following new introduction of ferret into a new place
- CS: dark green slimy diarrhea, loss of appetite, lethargy

25

what parasites will you see in ferrets? (5)

1. fleas
2. sarcoptes scabei
3. toxacara
4. coccidia
5. giardia

26

can ferrets get HW?

yes

27

what is a possible cause of alopecia in ferrets?

hyperadrenocorticism

28

what zoonotic diseases should you think about in ferrets?

scabies, rignworm, rabies, bacterial pathogens (like salmonella)

29

hyperadrenocorticism or hyperestrogenism (adrenal associated tumor) in ferrets
- what should you know about the name?
- secondary to what?
- CS
- most effective tx
- alternative tx

its called ferret hyperadrenocorticism, but it is NOT like canine cushings - it's due to elevated *ESTROGEN* levels
- secondary to hyperestrogenism due to adrenal tumor
- CS: anemia, bone marrow suppression, muscle wasting, posterior weakness and lethargy and pruritus! (which can be difficult to rule/out skin stuff)
- most effective tx: adrenalectomy
- alternative tx: lupron, an estrogen reducing GnRH

30

Insulinoma in ferrets
- what organ derived from what cells
- secrete what hormone resulting in what?
- what are most common CS
- what diagnostic should you use?
- how do you tx it?

- tumor of pancreas derived from beta cells secreting insulin
- secrete tons of insulin resulting in *hypoglycemia*
- CS: hypoglycemia and neuro signs
- diagnostic: whipple's triad: 1. low fasting glucose level 2. neuro signs typical of hypoglycemia 3. relief of symptoms with administration of glucose
- tx: prednisone and diazoxide and diet high in protein and low carb

31

LSA in ferrets - 2 forms what are they?

1. juvenile LSA: <2 years old
2. adult LSA: > 4 years old

32

other than adrenal tumors, insulinomas, and LSAs, what other form of neoplasia do ferrrets get? and what kind are they?
what CS will they be associated with?

they also get MCT
- cutaneous form
- may be associated with pruritus and cause self-excoriation

33

Avian Chlamydiosis
- agent
- other common names
- how is it transmitted
- whats impt to remember about this dz

Chamydophila psittaci
- avian chlamydiosis or parrot fever or ornithosis or chlamydia psittaci
- its a bacteria shed in feces and respiratory discharges: ingestion and inhalation are primary routes of infection
- latent carriers are hard to id - the dz is ZOONOTIC and REPORTABLE

34

avian chlamydiosis
- CS
- dx
- gold standard dx
- tx

- CS: nasal/ocular discharge, infraorbital swelling, *resp difficulty*, diarrhea
- dx: increased WBC and liver values (AST, ALT, LDH), PCR blood, feces, resp. fluids
- gold standard dx: culture!
- tx: doxycycline

35

Psittacine Beak and Feather disease
- virus type
- M&M
- transmission

circovirus
- high morbidity an dmortality
- transmitted: contact with contaminated feathers most common, but fecal&oral also possible

36

Psittacine Beak and feather disease
- CS
- dx
- tx

- CS: feather loss, beak defects
- dx: PCR of whole blood, histo (inclusion bodies
- tx: none, remove from flock

37

Proventircular Diltation disease
- other common names
- virus
- which birds are most susceptible
- transmission

- psittacine wasting disease, macaw wasting disease
- avian borna virus
- macaws, cocaktoos and conures most susceptible
- transmission: fecal/oral

38

Proventricular diltation disease
- CS
- classic sign
- dx
- tx

- CS: nerve supply to proventriculus, ventriculus and SI destroyed. regurge, vomiting, *passage of undigested food*, ataxia, seizures
- classic sign: *severely dilated thin wall of proventriculus seen on radiograph*
- dx: histo: lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis; necropsy: dilated GI tract
- tx: supportive - NSAIDs

39

Pacheco's disease
- seen in what type of bird?
- agent
- transmission

- seen in psittacines only
- herpesvirus
- transmission: direct contact with infected feces, ocular/nasal discharge. can have carriers

40

Pacheco's disease
- CS
- Dx
- dx: important sign
- Tx

- CS: birds with sudden death are highly suspect, *green urates* (indicates liver damage), neuro signs, anorexia, diarrhea
- dx: PCR of blood & cloacal swab, histopath - hepatic inclusion bodies
- dx important: consider Pacheco's dz in any psittacine that dies suddenly with no previous signs of illness
- tx: Acyclovir sometimes effective but causes kidney damage

41

Polyoma virus
- transmission
- CS
- dx

- transmission: latent carrier state is common, direct contact with infected material, vertically spread via eggs
- CS: high mortality in young psittacine birds, regurge, diarrhea, feather abnormalities, petechiae
- dx: histopath: viral intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver, kidney, spleen, heart and feather follicles

42

what is important to know about light exposure in iguanas?

they need UV-A and UV-B light.
UV-A = visualization adn behavior
UV-B = Vit D & Ca metabolism

43

what is the nasal salt gland in an iguana?

- it helps conserve water
- produces white powder on nose which is normal

44

what is unique about the iguana heart?

it only has 1 ventricle (3-chambered)

45

where do you collect blood from an iguana?

the tail vein (ventral aspect of tail)

46

what is important to realize about the iguana diet?

they are obligate herbivores
they must maintain a Ca:P of 2:1

47

what zoonotic fecal-organisms can iguanas harbor?

salmonella, campylobacter, klebsiella, aeromonas and cryposporidia (protozoal)

48

what is metabolic bone disease in igunas due to? (imbalance of what nutrients)?

imbalance of Vitamin D, Ca and P

49

what are some causes of metabolic bone disease?

improper diet
improper lighting
chronic kidney disease (can cause renal metabolic bone disease)

50

what are CS of metabolic bone disease?

- boney protuberances in long bones
- softening of bones
- muscle weakness, lethargy and reluctance to move

51

how do you treat metabolic bone disease?

- CA supplementation
- provide proper UV light

52

ulcerative stomatitis
- also called what?
- often due to what?
- CS?

"mouth rot"
- due to poor husbandry
- chronic trauma/excoriations to rostrum from persistent rubbing on caging materials
- CS: plaque formation, erythema of gingiva, increased salivation

53

Dysecdysis
- what does it mean?
- CS
- cause
- tx

means abnormal shedding (iguanas normally shed skin in pieces as opposed to snakes which shed in one piece)
- CS: dry, flaky patches of dead skin
- cause: improper humidity
- tx: fix humidity

54

egg binding (dystocias) in iguanas - when is this seen?

- in first-time breeding females
- females bearing infertile clutches

55

what are some possible reasons for egg binding in iguanas?

- reproductive tract obstruction
- abnormal egg shape
- malformed pelvic canal
- poor husbandry, malnutrition, improper nesting, absence of opposite sex, lack of exercise, poor physical condition

56

what are CS of egg binding in iguanas?

- depression
- weakness
- evidence of straining
- prolapse of cloacal or reproductive tissues

57

how do you treat egg binding in iguanas?

- rule out obstruction of oviduct first
- physical manipulation
- oxytocin or arginine asotocin
- Ca gluconate

58

ivermectin is toxic to what reptile?

turtles

59

articular gout in reptiles
- how does it occur?

- occurrs when fed excessive protein in diet
- uric acid builds up and is deposited in joints

60

what will articular gout look like on necropsy of a lizard?

white chalky nodules in multiple joints as well as pinpoint white foci in kidneys

61

plasmodium in birds
- what is it
- how is it transmitted

intra-RBC parasite of birds
- nucleus displaced to periphery
- transmitted by mosquitos

62

how many air sacs do birds have?
what is unique about their trahceal rings?

9 air sacs
their tracheal rings are complete

63

what vitamin are guinea pigs often deficient in?

vitamin C
leads to scurvy
it is necessary for collagen synthesis (healthy hair, teeth, etc)

64

deficiency in Vitamin C leads to what?
- leads to deficiencies in what
- CS
- what species is it common in?

scurvy
causes deficiencies in collagen and will cause oral petechia, loose teeth and rough hair coat.
commonly seen in guinea pigs

65

how should pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in eggs (birds) be treated?

injection of piperacillin

66

candida, hypovitaminosis A and trichomoniasis all result in what clinical sign?

raised plaques

67

how do you euthanize a bird?

give ISO via facemask then once anesthetized, give IV pentobarbital

68

what is the most common GI tumor of birds?
what species is it most often seen in?
what will it look like?

- cloacal papilloma
- seen msot often in amazons and macaws
- will have small fleshy proliferations that can lead to cloacal prolapse

69

feather cysts
- what are they?
whaere are they most common
tx?

- aka ingrown hair - causes nasty cheesy stuff around a hair follicle
- common on primary feathers of hte wing
- tx: surgical removal of feather follicle

70

what is the middle (shaft) of the feather of a bird called?

rachis

71

what is a potentially fatal disease to humans that can be transmitted by old world monkeys, esp. Macaques?

Herpes simiae (a herpes B virus)

72

what strain of herpes do humans carry that can be fatal to old world monkeys? what does it cause to them?

herpes simplex virus

causes fatal encephalitis

73

what is another word for goiter and what causes it in birds?

aka "thyroid hyperplasia"
caused by iodine deficiency

74

common isolate in infectious stomatitis in turtles, snakes and lizards?
CS?

aeromonas and pseudomonas

cs: petechiation and caseous material build up in mouth

75

whats required for chinchilla health

dust baths every 1 - 2 days

76

what is haemoproteus?

blood-borne parasite seen in birds the partially encircle the nucleus

77

an old budgerigar recently had a cere color change from blue to brown. what is the dx?

sertoli cell tumor

78

what are possible sequelae to Ca, P and vitamin D imbalance in birds?

osteoporosis, acute hypoCa (seizures), rickets, splayleg, egg binding

79

what does too much vitamin D in birds cause?

mineralization in tissues, esp the kidneys

80

what is Chrysanthemum disease?

a genetic disorder in budgerigars that makes them grow a ton of feathers and look like feather dusters

81

what is USDA responsible for?

meat and poultry PRODUCTS, including eggs

82

what does FDA regulate?

foods, food labels, vet drugs and SEAFOOD

83

what does EPA regulate?

pesticides and water standards

84

mammary neoplasias in RATS

- benign fibroadenomas that can occur ANYWHEREA

85

mammary tumors in mice

often anaplastic and invasive

86

what are blood feathers?
what should you do when they break?

blood feathers aka "pin feathers" are new feathers starting to grow and have a large blood supply.

pull the blood feather if it is broken using a hemostat gripped close to the skin and pulled steadily and firmly

87

where does the esophagus lie in a bird?

on the right side of the neck

88

the correct daily water requirement for a rabbit is

120ml/kg (a lot more than a dog or cat)

89

what is proliferative bowel disease in ferrets caused by and how is it treated?

lawsonia
treat w/ chloramphenicol

90

what predisposes snakes and lizards to scale rot or ulcerative dermatitis?

humid environment
fecal contaminated bedding
dermal lesions
poor hygiene

91

how is cryptosporidiosis treated in reptiles?

there is no treatment

92

what bone do you place catheters in birds?

the ulna (a non-pneumatic bone)
humerus and femur are pneumatic so cant use them

93

top differential for regurge in snakes?

inclusion body disease

94

haemochromatosis
what is it?

iron storage disease - too much iron accumulates in liver and other organs

95

what is a rhamphotheca?

the thin horny sheath of keratin that covers the boney beak in birs

96

what is a choana?

the slit on the roof of the mouth in birds - its a passageway for air from nasal respiratory system into oral cavity

97

murine respiratory mycoplasmosis

common chronic disease in rats of inflammation of respiratory tract and middle ear

98

diabetes mellitus in birds

- CS similar to other animals: hyperglycemia, glucosuria and PU/PD
- tx: insulin jections and oral medications like glipizide

99

what abx cannot be given to a rabbit?

erythromycin (anything with predominant gram + spectrum since they are lagamoprhs)

100

birds get exocrine pancreatic insuffiency
- CS
- Tx

- CS: weight loss, pale voluminous droppings with "popcorn" appearance
- tx: diet supplemented with pancreatic enzymes

101

what cells in birds contain nuclei?

all of them - heterophils (WBC), RBC, platelets, etc.

102

whirling disease (fish)

agent is Myxobolus (aka Myxosoma) cerebralis which is a myxosporean parasite of salmonid fish.
- characterized by spores in cartilage

103

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (fish)

protozoal parasite that causes white spots on gills and skin with erratic behavior

104

hole in the head disease (fish)

piting like lesions on head and lateral line

105

gill rot (fish)

fungal dz - Branchiomyces
CS: resp distress due to thrombosis to the gills

106

Pasteurella multocida in RABBITS

"snuffles"
- CS: mucopurulent nasal discharge and sneezing are most common.
but it can cause many other signs: enzootic pneumonia, otitis, conjunctivitis, meningitis, encephalitis, repro tract infections, abscesses and septicemia.

107

how much blood can you take from a bird?

1% of their body weight (converting gms to mls)

so if a bird is 100grams, 1% of 100= 1ml

108

Corynebacterium kutscheri
what does it cause in rats?

causes pseudotuberculosis in rats
CS: dyspnea, oculonasal discharge, rough hair coat

109

Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) rabbits

causes neuro and renal disease. it directly infects the lenses of rabbits and causes phacoclastic cataracts (it can break thru the lens capsule) and uveitis

110

what 3 abx are used most commonly in rodents?

enrofloxacin
chloramphenicol
TMS

111

what disease do rabbits carry that are fatal to guinea pigs and is why they should not be housed together

rabbits carry bordatella bronchiseptica which causes primary resp. dz in guinea pigs

112

most bladder stones in rabbits are

calcium carbonate

113

what should progressive, unilateral paresis in birds make you suspicious of?

renal neoplasia
- due to pressure exerted on sciatic nerve by a renal tumor

114

Cnemidocoptes infestations in birds

lead to honeycomb-like beak

115

articular gout in a bird
- presentation
- what will cytology show?
- how is it treated?

presents with shifting leg lameness and inability to bend toes
- cytology shows spindle-shaped crystals
- treat with allopurinol therapy

116

hypovitaminosis A in turtles
CS

CS: eyelid edema, resp disease, renal disease (squamous metaplasia of renal tubules blocking collecting ducts), squamous metaplasia of epithelium and secondary infections to eyes, skin and resp system

117

Tyzzer's disease in mice

clostridium pilforme
CS: diarrhea, kyphosis, poor haircoat
lesions: hepatic necrosis and inflammation of ileum

118

what hormone will stop a bird from laying eggs?

Leuprolide acetate (Lupron)

119

xanthoma
birds

benign growths composed of lipids and cholesterol accumulations (kind of like lipomas)
- most prevalent in cockatiels, budgies and cockatoos
- cytology shows macrophagic inflammation w/ multi-nucleated giant cells and cholesterol clefts

120

most common cause of seizures in the adult ferret?

hypoglycemia
secondary to insulinoma

121

what is unique about rabbit teeth?

they are open-rooted and continously growing

122

lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM)

if you see this, euthanize the animal. its an RNA arena virus and is zoonotic

123

what is important to remember about reptiles regarding renal-portal system?

the blood in the caudal half of their body passes thru the kidneys before returning to the heart.

so administration of nephrotoxic drugs (like gentamicin) should not be administered in the caudal half of the body

124

nutritional disease common to guinea pigs

hypovitaminosis C
- CS: oral petechia, loose teeth

125

Cutaneous xanthomatosis

accumulation of lipids in skin of birds
- CS: focal feather loss, lesion that is thick, yellow and friable
- macrophagic inflammatory response, with multinucleated giant cells and cholesterol crystals observed cytologically.

126

a budgerigar that is:
- sitting on floor of cate
- progressive leg lameness
- Polydipsic
- weight loss
what is the dx?

renal adenocarcinoma

most common dx in budgerigars that are lame and have weight loss

127

most common signs of renal failure in an iguana?

episcleral injection, swelling of the pharyngeal region, and pain on palpation of the abdomen

128

what is the ear mite in rabbits?
how do you tx it?

Psoroptes cuniculi

ivermectin or selamectin

129

natural host of Francisella tularensis?

rabbits and rodents

this is a zoonotic bacteria

130

what clin path is most liver specific in birds?

bile acids

AST

131

Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli
the sarptoic mange for camels
- CS

CS: losing hair around head, neck and progresses down body, some swollen areas, wrinkling of skin, intense pruritus

132

what abx shouldnt be used in rabbits/

anything w/ gram + spectrum - erythromycin

133

Eclectus parrots
male is what color
female is what color?

male = green
female = red

134

Candida albicans in birds

- most common in young birds
- infects crop mucosa
- can cause crop stasis

135

proliferative bowel disease in ferrets

- CS: prolapsed rectum, chronic diarrhea, weight loss w/ green stool containing mucus, thickened intestine and enlarged mesenteric LN

136

Mycoplasma pulmonis. in rats is associated iwth what

associated with cilia-associated respiratory bacillus infection

137

rabbits that dont get spayed can get what neoplasia?

uterine adenocarcinoma

138

Aspergillus

respiratory disease
CS: white plaques on the air sacs and caseous plugs in the distal trachea