Poultry Flashcards Preview

NAVLE > Poultry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Poultry Deck (41):
1

Salmonella pullorum/gallinarum
Where is it distributed?
How is it transmitted
What species does it infect?

Outside the US - its eradicated
Egg-transmitted, horizontally
Chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, pheasants, sparrows, and parrots

2

What CS & lesions are seen with salmonella pullorum/gallinarum?

FAD
CS: sudden death, septic arthritis (few signs in adults) - in most cases no clinical disease associated

lesions: white nodules or foci in heart, liver, cecum and gizzard, yellow-red inflammatory exudate in cecum, splenomegaly

3

How do you test for salmonella pullorum?

Plate agglutination test

4

Necrotic dermatitis or gangrenous dermatitis
Cauastive agents
CS:
How is it managed?

Clostridia septicum, clostridia perfringens A & C, staph. Aureus
CS: only causes signs if there is immunosuppression (necrosis and hemorrhage of skin)
Manage via minimizing overcrowding, clean litter

5

Necrotic enteritis
Causative agent
In what species is it found?
Age
CS
When does it cause disease?

Clostridium perfringens types A & C
Floor-raised broilers and turkeys
Age: ~ 3 weeks of age
CS: gut damage, weakness, depression, death

Organism is always present, but something has to go wrong for it to cause disease

6

What does E. Coli cause?
Is it primary or secondary organism?

Colibacillosis
Secondary - its part of the normal flora of the environment

7

What is the most common bacterial infection in the US?

E. Coli - colibacillosis

8

Colibacillosis CS triad

Caused by E. Coli
1. Pericarditis
2. Perihepatitis
3. Air sacculitis

9

Salpingitis
What is it
What is it seen with?

Infection of the repro tract

E. Coli

10

Pasterurella multocida
What is the common disease name?
Transmission
How often does it cause problem?

Fowl cholera
Transmission: enters mucous membranes of pharynx

Not often; its ubiquitous - we just vax for it: both Killed and live

11

Infectious Coryza
Causative agent
Species
CS
prevention

Avibacterium paragallinarum
Laying chickens
CS: foul odor, swelling of infraorbital sinuses, decreased production
Prevention: vaccinate, all-in/out

12

Aspergillosis
What type of contamination is it?

Environmental contamination - ubquitous
Not transmitted from bird to bird

13

Infectious Laryngotracheitis
Virus type
Who is the primary host?
Transmission
Where does it replicate?
Where does it persist?

Alpha-herpes virus
Primary host: chickens
Transmission: ocular and respiratory routes of entry
Replicates in and lyses epithelium of larynx, trachea, bronchi, conjunctiva, and sinuses
Persists: lung subclinically and trigeminal ganglion in latent infection

14

CS of Infectious Laryngotracheitis

Histopath of trachea

Gasp for air, blood on mouth, shaking head

Histopath: epithelial syncytia containing eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies

15

Infectious bursal disease
Species
Common disease name
CS
Lesions
Transmission
Control

Chickens and turkeys
Aka Gumboro disease
CS: rapid onset, ruffled feathers, watery diarrhea, severe prostration
Lesions: primarily bursa of fabricius necrosis
Control: vas young chicks to prevent immunosuppression, vax breeders to transfer persistent Ab to progeny

16

Newcastle disease
Virus type
What virus type is exotic newcastle?
CS
Lesions
Transmission

Paramyxoviridae
Velogenic
CS exotic: super infectious, death
CS non-exotic: edema of head, greenish diarrhea, resp & neuro signs
Lesions: edematous comb w/ hemorrhage, conjunctival & ventriculus hemorrhage, edema in neck
Transmission: direct contact (fomites, feces, respiratory discharge, etc)

17

Marek's disease
Virus type
3 serotypes

Alpha herpesvirus

Serotype 1: oncogenic
Serotype 2: non-oncogenic
Serotype 3: turkey origin herpesvirus

18

Marek's disease
CS
Lesions
Transmission
Control

CS: gross tumors, neural lymphoma, torticollis (head turned to side), ocular lymphoma, cutaneous lymphoma, visceral lymphoma

Lesions: lymphoid tumors in thymus, neoplastic nerve lesions, pleomorphic nature of lymphoid cells in tumors

Transmission: respiratory, feather follicle epithelium
Control: S2 + S3 vaccines (work synergistically)

19

Fowl pox
CS
Lesions
Transmission
Control

CS: scab-like lesions on unfeathered skin, lesions around eyes and beak (dry form), nodules in oral cavity (wet form - which is worse)
Lesions: white plaques on chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs, bollinger bodies (giant cells) on wet lesions, Intracytoplasmic inclusions in epithelial cells

Transmission: mechanical vectors (biting insects)
Control: attenuated live vax

20

Avian influenza
Virus type
CS of LPAI in turkeys
CS of LPAI in chickens

Orthomyxovirus
CS of LPAI in turkeys: depression, huddling, sinusitis, eyes closed
CS of LPAI in chickens: mild resp signs - cough, sneeze

21

Avian Influenza
CS of HPAI
Pathogenicity of HPAI

Sudden onset of high mortlaity
HA can be cleaved in many tissue types resulting in systemic infection

22

Infectious Bronchitis
Virus type
CS
CS of egg layers
Lesions
Transmission

Coronavirus
CS: resp distress, sneezing, rales, mortality 30%
CS of layers: resp signs AND eggs are soft-shelled, irregular, watery albumen, porous shell

Lesions: air sacculitis, sinusitis, fibrinous tracheitis, swollen kidneys, cystic oviducts, plugs in trachea
Transmission: oculonasal secretions or fomites

23

Coccidiosis
Causative agent
Which agent is most pathogenic?

CS

Eimeria (protozoa)

E. Tenella is most pathogenic

CS: host and site specific! Severe diarrhea, anemia, weight loss

24

Coccidiosis
Lesions
Transmission

Lesions: hemorrhage, dilation and fibrinonecrotic material in intestinal tract

Transmission: ingestion, fomites

25

Avian bordetellosis
Common disease name
Causative agent
CS
Dx
Control

Turkey Coryza
Agent: bordetella avium
CS: nasal discharge, foamy eyes, cough
Dx: isolation on MacConkey agar
Control: not great - vax isnt good, abx unrewarding

26

Reticuloendotheliosis
What does it do?
What species does it effect?
CS
What disease is it hard to differentiate from?

Causes runting of birds, acute neoplasias and chronic B and T cell lymphoma

CS: weight loss, thymic 7 bural atrophy, enlarged nerves, anemia, neoplasia of liver, spleen, heart & intestine

Hard to differentiate from Marek's

27

What is the most common source of campylobacter infection in humans?

Undercooked chicken

28

Poultry red mite
Agent
When do they feed
CS

Dermanyssus gallinae
Nocturnal feeders

CS: anemia, decreased reproductive potential and death in severe infestations

29

Why should turkeys and chickens not be housed together? (Hint: involves a parasite)

prevent transmission of Histomonas meleagridis from chickens TO turkeys

This parasite is fatal to turkeys - causes extensive necrosis of the liver and cecum

30

Thrush or sour crop
Causative agent
When do chickens commonly get these infections?
Lesions
Treatment

Candidiasis
Chickens get this after treatment with abx for something else
Lesions: thick, white lesions in the mouth, crop or esophagus

Treatment: copper sulfate in water or nystatin in feed

31

What is the most common cause of liver damage in broiler chickens? From what agent?

Cholangiohepatitis from clostridium perfringens

32

What abx is used in poultry that has no withdrawal time?

Amprolium

33

Choline deficiency
Species
CS
Histo:

Young turkeys

CS: stunting, short and thick bowed legs
Histo: chondrodysplasia

34

Organophosphates
CS in newborns

CS: cervical lordosis, shortened axial skeletons, SC emphysema

35

Malabsorption syndrome
CS
Lesions
Treatment

CS: decreased pigmentation on skin, feet and beak
Lesions: orange mucus in SI, enlarged proventriculus, small gizzard, atrophied pancreas

Treat: cull affected birds daily

36

Deep pectoral myopathy
CS
How do you decrease incidence of the disease?

CS: swollen, edematous pectoral muscles, degeneration, necrosis and green appearnce of muscle

Decrease incidence by selective breeding

37

Scaly leg mite
Agent
CS
Dx
What must you remember when diagnosing this mite?
Tx

Knemidocoptes or Cnemidocoptes
CS: mild lameness, white-grey powdery debris on legs resulting in honeycomb crusts

Dx: skin scraping

Remember: the male and female look substantially different.
The female is round with short legs and no suckers.
The male is is smaller with longer legs and suckers on long strand-like stalks

Tx = ivermectin

38

Laminosioptes cysticola
Where is it found on the body?
What does it cause

SC mite
Causes nodular SC lesions

39

Ornithonyssus sylvarium
Called what?
Where is it found on the body?

The northern fowl mite

Infects the feathered regions around the vent

40

Common chigger
Agent
Where are they found on the body?
CS

trombicula alfreddugesi
Attach to wings, breasts and necks of chickens

CS: weak, anorexic and die in heavy infestations

41

What is one of the more common ways of administering vaccines to chickens in the US?

Thru the drinking water
In ovo (thru an ovo injecter)
Via spray