Flashcards in Poultry Deck (41):
Where is it distributed?
How is it transmitted
What species does it infect?
Outside the US - its eradicated
Chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, pheasants, sparrows, and parrots
What CS & lesions are seen with salmonella pullorum/gallinarum?
CS: sudden death, septic arthritis (few signs in adults) - in most cases no clinical disease associated
lesions: white nodules or foci in heart, liver, cecum and gizzard, yellow-red inflammatory exudate in cecum, splenomegaly
How do you test for salmonella pullorum?
Plate agglutination test
Necrotic dermatitis or gangrenous dermatitis
How is it managed?
Clostridia septicum, clostridia perfringens A & C, staph. Aureus
CS: only causes signs if there is immunosuppression (necrosis and hemorrhage of skin)
Manage via minimizing overcrowding, clean litter
In what species is it found?
When does it cause disease?
Clostridium perfringens types A & C
Floor-raised broilers and turkeys
Age: ~ 3 weeks of age
CS: gut damage, weakness, depression, death
Organism is always present, but something has to go wrong for it to cause disease
What does E. Coli cause?
Is it primary or secondary organism?
Secondary - its part of the normal flora of the environment
What is the most common bacterial infection in the US?
E. Coli - colibacillosis
Colibacillosis CS triad
Caused by E. Coli
3. Air sacculitis
What is it
What is it seen with?
Infection of the repro tract
What is the common disease name?
How often does it cause problem?
Transmission: enters mucous membranes of pharynx
Not often; its ubiquitous - we just vax for it: both Killed and live
CS: foul odor, swelling of infraorbital sinuses, decreased production
Prevention: vaccinate, all-in/out
What type of contamination is it?
Environmental contamination - ubquitous
Not transmitted from bird to bird
Who is the primary host?
Where does it replicate?
Where does it persist?
Primary host: chickens
Transmission: ocular and respiratory routes of entry
Replicates in and lyses epithelium of larynx, trachea, bronchi, conjunctiva, and sinuses
Persists: lung subclinically and trigeminal ganglion in latent infection
CS of Infectious Laryngotracheitis
Histopath of trachea
Gasp for air, blood on mouth, shaking head
Histopath: epithelial syncytia containing eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies
Infectious bursal disease
Common disease name
Chickens and turkeys
Aka Gumboro disease
CS: rapid onset, ruffled feathers, watery diarrhea, severe prostration
Lesions: primarily bursa of fabricius necrosis
Control: vas young chicks to prevent immunosuppression, vax breeders to transfer persistent Ab to progeny
What virus type is exotic newcastle?
CS exotic: super infectious, death
CS non-exotic: edema of head, greenish diarrhea, resp & neuro signs
Lesions: edematous comb w/ hemorrhage, conjunctival & ventriculus hemorrhage, edema in neck
Transmission: direct contact (fomites, feces, respiratory discharge, etc)
Serotype 1: oncogenic
Serotype 2: non-oncogenic
Serotype 3: turkey origin herpesvirus
CS: gross tumors, neural lymphoma, torticollis (head turned to side), ocular lymphoma, cutaneous lymphoma, visceral lymphoma
Lesions: lymphoid tumors in thymus, neoplastic nerve lesions, pleomorphic nature of lymphoid cells in tumors
Transmission: respiratory, feather follicle epithelium
Control: S2 + S3 vaccines (work synergistically)
CS: scab-like lesions on unfeathered skin, lesions around eyes and beak (dry form), nodules in oral cavity (wet form - which is worse)
Lesions: white plaques on chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs, bollinger bodies (giant cells) on wet lesions, Intracytoplasmic inclusions in epithelial cells
Transmission: mechanical vectors (biting insects)
Control: attenuated live vax
CS of LPAI in turkeys
CS of LPAI in chickens
CS of LPAI in turkeys: depression, huddling, sinusitis, eyes closed
CS of LPAI in chickens: mild resp signs - cough, sneeze
CS of HPAI
Pathogenicity of HPAI
Sudden onset of high mortlaity
HA can be cleaved in many tissue types resulting in systemic infection
CS of egg layers
CS: resp distress, sneezing, rales, mortality 30%
CS of layers: resp signs AND eggs are soft-shelled, irregular, watery albumen, porous shell
Lesions: air sacculitis, sinusitis, fibrinous tracheitis, swollen kidneys, cystic oviducts, plugs in trachea
Transmission: oculonasal secretions or fomites
Which agent is most pathogenic?
E. Tenella is most pathogenic
CS: host and site specific! Severe diarrhea, anemia, weight loss
Lesions: hemorrhage, dilation and fibrinonecrotic material in intestinal tract
Transmission: ingestion, fomites
Common disease name
Agent: bordetella avium
CS: nasal discharge, foamy eyes, cough
Dx: isolation on MacConkey agar
Control: not great - vax isnt good, abx unrewarding
What does it do?
What species does it effect?
What disease is it hard to differentiate from?
Causes runting of birds, acute neoplasias and chronic B and T cell lymphoma
CS: weight loss, thymic 7 bural atrophy, enlarged nerves, anemia, neoplasia of liver, spleen, heart & intestine
Hard to differentiate from Marek's
What is the most common source of campylobacter infection in humans?
Poultry red mite
When do they feed
CS: anemia, decreased reproductive potential and death in severe infestations
Why should turkeys and chickens not be housed together? (Hint: involves a parasite)
prevent transmission of Histomonas meleagridis from chickens TO turkeys
This parasite is fatal to turkeys - causes extensive necrosis of the liver and cecum
Thrush or sour crop
When do chickens commonly get these infections?
Chickens get this after treatment with abx for something else
Lesions: thick, white lesions in the mouth, crop or esophagus
Treatment: copper sulfate in water or nystatin in feed
What is the most common cause of liver damage in broiler chickens? From what agent?
Cholangiohepatitis from clostridium perfringens
What abx is used in poultry that has no withdrawal time?
CS: stunting, short and thick bowed legs
CS in newborns
CS: cervical lordosis, shortened axial skeletons, SC emphysema
CS: decreased pigmentation on skin, feet and beak
Lesions: orange mucus in SI, enlarged proventriculus, small gizzard, atrophied pancreas
Treat: cull affected birds daily
Deep pectoral myopathy
How do you decrease incidence of the disease?
CS: swollen, edematous pectoral muscles, degeneration, necrosis and green appearnce of muscle
Decrease incidence by selective breeding
Scaly leg mite
What must you remember when diagnosing this mite?
Knemidocoptes or Cnemidocoptes
CS: mild lameness, white-grey powdery debris on legs resulting in honeycomb crusts
Dx: skin scraping
Remember: the male and female look substantially different.
The female is round with short legs and no suckers.
The male is is smaller with longer legs and suckers on long strand-like stalks
Tx = ivermectin
Where is it found on the body?
What does it cause
Causes nodular SC lesions
Where is it found on the body?
The northern fowl mite
Infects the feathered regions around the vent
Where are they found on the body?
Attach to wings, breasts and necks of chickens
CS: weak, anorexic and die in heavy infestations