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Flashcards in small animal GI Deck (46):
1

sailocele

accumulation of saliva in SQ tissue due to salivary duct obstruction/rupture

just open and drain mass then remove salivary gland

no biggie

2

what breeds are likely to have sialadenosis (inflammation of salivary gland)

GSD
small terriers

3

clinical features of sialadenosis

- painless
- mandibular most common!
- episodic ptyalism
- dysphagia
- regurge/vomiting

4

dx and tx of sialadenosis

dx: via exclusion
treat it like a seizure (for w/e reason): phenobarbital

5

3 different type of epulides and their characteristics

1. fibromatous: seen in boxers
2. ossifying more aggressive; includes bone
3. acanthomatous - benign but is very locally invasive

6

what breeds are predisposed to eosinophilic granulomas

huskies
cavalier king charles spaniel

7

cats are most likely to get what kind of oral neoplasia?

SCC

8

feline eosinophilic granuloma
CS
diagnosis

CS: presence of ulcerated mass on base of tongue, hard palate, etc., may have concurrent cutaneous lesions

dx: deep biopsy

9

feline eosinophilic granuloma
Tx
px

Tx: prednisolone, cyclosporine, chorambucil

px: young cats have better prognosis

10

stomatitis
etiology
CS

etiology: inflammation of mucus lining of any structures of the mouth. can cause renal failure or immune mediated disease if left untreated
CS: thick saliva, halitosis and suuuper painful

11

stomatitis
dx
tx

dx: biopsy/histopath
tx: symptomatic - abx, analgesics, oral rinses, etc. salvage procedure is to take out all the teeth

12

feline lymphocytic-plasmacytic stomatitis
CS
Dx
Tx

CS: most common = anorexia/painful, halitosis and dental neck lesions
dx: biopsy!
tx: teeth extraction - remove all of them! does better

13

cleft palate
classification: primary vs. secondary
CS
tx

primary: cleft lip (hare lip)
secondary: roof of mouth (hard/soft palate)

CS: cant suck or nurse, aspiration pneumonia

tx: wait until 3 -4 months then surgery

14

masticatory muscle myositis
etiology
acute CS vs chronic CS

immune mediated - circulating antibodies (IgG) to type 2M myofibers

CS: young-middle aged dogs - large breed
acute: painful swelling of temporalis/masseter muscles, exophthalmus, pyrexia, pain on palpation of muscles and trying to open mouth

chronic: more common - severe atrophy of temporalis/masseter muscles, difficulting opening mouth

15

masticatory muscle myositis
dx
tx

dx: elevated CK, AST, globulin
tx: pred!

16

cricopharyngeal achlasia dysfunction

incoordination between cricophyarngeus m. and swallowing reflex

seen in young dogs; congenital

dx via barium study
tx: surgery - cut the cricopharyngeal muscle

17

pharyngeal dysphagia/dysfunction
etiology
CS
dx
tx

etiology: acquired - inability to form food bolus at base of tonge and propel down esophagus (CN 9 & 10)

CS: seen in older animals, regurgitation during swallowing

dx: barium study

tx: treat underlying myasthenia gravis

18

what is an important factor in determining location of esophageal weakness?

the presence or absence of dysphagia with regurgitation.

if there is dysphagia - that localizes the dysfunction to the level of the oral, pharyngeal or cricophyarngeal region

if there is NO dysphagia, that localizes the issue to general esophageal dysfunction (obstruction or muscle weakness)

19

what treatment is available for congenital esophgeal weakness and megaesophagus?

there is no definitive treatment but supportive care includes:
- dietary modification: small and frequent meals
- elevated feeding
- gastrotomy tubes

20

what are the clincal signs of acquired esophgeal weakness and megaesophagus?

CS: regurgitation, cough, weight loss, excessive drooling

21

how do you dx acquired esophgeal weakness and megaesophagus?

- thoracic rads
- confirm megaesophagus via *ACh receptor antibody titer*
- hypothyroidism and addison's can also be uncommon causes

22

pathophys of myasthenia gravis

Ab to nicotinic Ach receptors bind at the NMJ and prevent activation of skeletal muscle.

23

how can you diagnose acquired myasthenia gravis?

tensilon test - give endrophonium and they will be able to move normally for like 10 seconds

24

how do you treat myasthenia gravis?

pyridostigmine and neostigmine

25

what meds can cause esophagitis in cats?

doxy and tetracycline

26

what is the etiology and clinical features of esophagitis?

how do you dx it?

reflux, *persistent vomiting*, regurge, drooling

dx = esophagoscopy

27

how do you treat esophagitis?

1. decrease acidity of stomch: famotidine (H2 antagonist) and omeprazole
2. prevent reflux: metoclopramide (increases LES tone), cisapride
3. esophageal protectants: sucralfate
4. Abx for anaerobes: amoxicillin, clindamycin

28

etiology of hiatal hernia: sliding and peri-esophageal

sliding: cranial displacement of esophagus and stomach into mediastinum thru hiatus

29

hiatal hernia: CS, dx and tx

CS: intermittent reflux esophagitis (regurge, vomiting, ptyalism)
dx: rads while placing pressure on abdomen
tx: medical: famotidine (H2 antagonist to decrease acidity), sucralfate (mucosal protectant), cisapride/metoclopramide (increase LES tone).
tx: sx: diaphragmatic crural apposition, esophagopexy, gastropexy

30

vascular ring anomalies:
etiology
CS

- congenital defect - PRAA most common
CS: regurge is most common sign. signs begin after switching to solid food

31

vascular ring dx and tx

dx: rads - will see esophgeal dilation cranial to herat. contrast esophagram is definitive diagnosis.

sx: resection of anomalous vessel

32

foreign body in esophagus: what are the 3 most common locations

1. thoracic inlet
2. base of heart - the worst
3. immediately cranial to diaphragm

33

esophageal stricture
etiology and CS

etiology: can be caused by esophgagitis or FB or reflux while under anesthesia

CS: regurge, reflux during anesthesia, anorexia

34

esophogeal stricture dx and tx

dx: contrast esophgrams, esophagoscopy

tx: esophageal ballooning (may require multiple procedures), esophagitis therapy: omeprazole and sucralfate

35

what esophgeal neoplasia is most common in cats?

SCC!

36

what esophgeal neoplasia is most common in dogs? what is special about it?

leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma at the LES

it is curative!!

37

hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
signalment
CS
dx
tx

- small dogs more common
- CS: hemmorhagic diarrhea, hematochezia (fresh blood in stool rasperry jam appearance), hematoemesis
- dx: presumptive: increased PCV, normal TS
- tx: IV fluids, NPO, antiemetics, PPI, fenbendazole

38

chronic gastritis
etiology
CS

- etiology: lymphocytic/plasmacytic = most common - an initial defect in mucosal barrier followed by immune mediated inflammatory reaction (antigen)
- CS: anorexia, chronic vomiting, weight loss, melena

39

chronic gastritis
dx
tx

dx: histopath is required!
tx before biopsy: dietary therapy low fat, low fiber, novel protein, H2 receptor anatogonists (famotidine)
tx after biopsy: corticosteroids, immuno-suppressants (cyclosporine, azathioprine)

40

px of chronic gastritis for cats and dogs

cats: lymphocytic gastritis will progress to LSA
dogs: good for lymphocytic/plasmacytic gastritis and eosinophilic gastritis

41

helicobacter associated disease

a spirochete bacteria gram (-)
- usually asymotomatic (sometimes have signs of gastritis)
- dx via giemsa stain
- tx w/ metronidazole, omeprazole, amoxicillin
usually respond well

42

what breeds are susceptible to chronic hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy (aka pyloric stenosis)

congenital: brachycephalic breeds and siamese cats
acquired: lhasa apso, shih tzu, pekingese, poodle

43

signs and dx of chronic hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy

CS: chronic VOMITING shortly after eating (not regurge!)
dx: hypoCl, hypoK, metabolic alkalosis, imaging to show obstruction, histopath to rule out infiltrative dz like neoplasia

44

tx of chronic hypertrophic pyloric gastropathy

surgery - pyloroplasty

45

how do you dx GDV?

hypothermia
VPCs, v-tach
rads (R lateral)
hypoK, high lactate

46

what is an underlying etiology of GI ulceration erosion other than NSAIDs and how do you dx it?

addisons (hypoadrenocorticism) - check Na:K ratio <20 = diagnostic