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Flashcards in Antimicrobial Therapy Deck (105)
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1

Antimicrobial therapy 

folic acid synthesis 

  • Sulfonamides 
  • Trimethoprim 

2

Antimicrobial therapy 

DNA Topoisomerases 

  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Quinolone 

3

Antimicrobial therapy 

damages DNA

Metronidazole

4

Antimicrobial therapy 

mRNA synthesis 

Rifampin

5

Antimicrobial therapy 

protein synthesis (50S)

  • Chloramphenicol
  • Clindamycin
  • Linezolid 
  • Macrolides
  • Streptogramins 

6

Antimicrobial therapy 

protein synthesis (30S)

  • Aminoglycosides
  • Tetracyclines

7

Antimicrobial therapy 

cell wall synthesis (peptidoglycan cross linking) 

  • penicillinase-sensitive penicillins
  • penicillinase-resistant penicillins
  • antipseudomonals
  • cephalosporins
  • carbapenems 
  • monobactams 

8

Antimicrobial therapy 

cell wall synthesis (peptidoglycan synthesis) 

Glycopeptides

9

Penicillin G, V

administration 

  • prototype ß-lactam antibiotics 
  • penicillin G - IV & IM
  • penicillin V - oral 

10

Penicillin G, V

mechanism 

  • bind PBPs (transpeptidases)
  • block transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan 
  • activate autolytic enzymes 

11

Penicillin G, V

clinical use 

penicillinase 

  • gram (+) organisms 
    • S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Actinomyces
  • N. meningitidis, T. pallidum 
  • bactericidal: gram (+) cocci, gram (+) rods, gram (-) cocci, spirochetes 
  • penicillinase sensitive 

 

12

Penicillin G, V

toxicity 

  • hypersensitivity rxns 
  • hemolytic anemia 

13

Penicillin G, V

resistance 

penicillinase in bacteria cleaves ß-lactam ring

type of ß-lactamase 

14

Ampicillin, amoxicillin 

mechanism 

  • same as penicillin
  • wider spectrum
  • penicillinase sensitive 
  • combine w/ clavulanic acid to protect against ß-lactamase 

15

Ampicillin, amoxicillin 

clinical use 

HELPSS kill enterococci 

  • extended-spectrum penicillin 
  • Haemophilus influenzae 
  • E. coli 
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Proteus mirabilis 
  • Salmonella 
  • Shigella 
  • enterococci 

16

Ampicillin, amoxicillin 

toxicity 

  • hypersensitivity rxns
  • rash
  • psuedomembranous colitis 

17

Ampicillin, amoxicillin 

resistance 

  • penicillinase in bacteria cleaves ß-lactam ring
  • ß-lactamase 

18

Oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin 

mechanism 

  • same as penicillin 
  • narrow spectrum
  • penicillinase resistant 
    • bulky R group 
    • blocks access of ß-lactamase to ß-lactam ring 

19

Oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin

clinical use 

S. aureus (except MRSA)

20

Oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin 

toxicity 

  • hypersensitivity rxns 
  • interstitial nephritis 

21

Ticarcillin, piperacillin 

mechanism 

  • same as penicillin
  • extended spectrum 

22

Ticarcillin, piperacillin

clinical use 

  • Pseudomonas spp. 
  • gram-negative rods 
  • susceptible to penicillinase 
  • use w/ ß-lactamase inhibitors 

23

Ticarcillin, piperacillin 

toxicity 

hypersensitivity rxns

24

ß-lactamase inhibitors 

CAST

  • Clavulanic Acid 
  • Sulbactam
  • Tazobactam

25

Cephalosporins 

mechanism 

  • ß-lactams
  • inhibit cell wall synthesis 
  • less susceptible to penicillinases 
  • bactericidal 

26

1st generation cephalosporins 

cefazolin, cephalexin 

  • gram (+) cocci 
  • PEcK
    • Proteus mirabilis
    • E. coli 
    • Klebsiella 

27

_______ used prior to surgery to prevent S. aureus wound infections. 

Cefazolin 

28

2nd generation cephalosporins 

cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime 

  • gram (+) cocci 
  • HEN PEcKS
    • Haemophilus influenzae
    • Enterobacter aerogenes
    • Neisseria spp. 
    • Proteus mirabilis 
    • E. coli 
    • Klebsiella pneumoniae 
    • Serratia marcescens 

29

3rd generation cephalosporins 

ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime 

  • serious gram (-) infections resistant to other ß-lactams 
  • Ceftriaxone - meningitis & gonorrhea
  • Ceftazidime - Psuedomonas 

30

4th generation cephalosporins 

cefepime

  • increased activity against Pseudomonas & gram (+) organisms